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Psychology Memory Revision Guide

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Introduction

Transfer-Encoding: chunked ´╗┐Multi store Model Akinson and Shiffrin model * Simplistic * Rehearsal isn?t the only way * STM and LTM are not single stores * Useful ? base for further research http://revisewithrachie.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/multi-store-model.png Sperling ? Capacity of STM * Rows of letters ? recall 4 or 5 * Distinguish between 3 tones * Showed letters again with the tone * Recall less with the tones * Reliable * Lacks ecological validity * Generalising Iconic, echonic, haptic stores Peterson and Peterson - Duration of STM * Showed a consonant trigram * Count backwards in threes ? don?t rehearse the trigram * Recall 80% with 3 second intervals * Got worse as intervals lengthened * Information decays rapidly when rehearsal is prevented * Reliable ? lab * Lacks Ecological validity * Get confused with other trigrams Bahrick et al ? duration of LTM * Graduates of an American high school * Memory tests- recognising class mates, pictures, matching names to pictures * Good at 34 years * Dip at 47 years Conrad ? encoding of STM * Showed random sequence if six consonants * 1 ? acoustically similar * 2- acoustically ...read more.

Middle

easily to remember Baddeley and hitch * Dual tasks * 1- reasoning task * 2- reading aloud * Could do both easily simultaneously * STM must have different components that can process more than one type of information Baddeley et al * Dual task * Tracking task and visual imagery task * Poor at the dual task performed alone * Both tasks needed to be done in visual-spatial sketchpad so were competing for the same limited resources Eyewitness testimony Misleading information ? Loftus * Film of events leading to a car crash * Control group * experimental group (misleading question) * Asked questions to what they had seen * 17% experimental group recalled a barn * Misleading information absorbed into their memory and they believed it * Reliable ? lab * Ecological validity * Demand characteristics Anxiety ? Christianson and hubinette * Surveyed 110 people witness or victims of bank robberies * Victims subjected to higher levels on anxiety recalled better * High ecological validity * Generalising * Ethics ? distress Age ? Yarmey * Showed young and old adults a film of a staged event then asked questions * ...read more.

Conclusion

Memory improvement techniques Mnemonics ? system such as a pattern of letters, ideas or associations to help remember Something * Method of loci ? associating words with places * Method of peg word system ? associating words that are similar in sounding Encoding and retrieval ? recall better if the retrieval context is like the encoding context Geiseman and Glenny ? * List of words * Imagine and female or male voice * Recall a list of new words and some old * More successful if the voice presenting was the one they imagined * Recalling in the same place or same environment can help Chunking ? gathering all information together Katona * List of numbers * Hard to recall * Put comas in them * Easy to recall and see they were square numbers Active processing ? Craik and lockhart * Group 1 ? structural questions * Group 2 ? carry out acoustic task * Group 3 ? semantic task * Group 4 ? no task * Group 3 performed as well as group 4 and better than 1 and 2 * Meaningful engagement can lead to better recall ...read more.

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