• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Psychology of Crime

Extracts from this document...


Psychology and Crime Criminal Thinking Patterns - Jan 07 Outline one psychological theory of morality and crime (6) The behaviourist explanation looks at the development of children's moral behaviour, using positive and negative reinforcement. Hoffman states punishment is less effective than positive reinforcement. This suggests that the development of children's moral behaviour is largely influenced by parental discipline and helps to explain inconsistency in children's moral behaviour. Criminal Thinking Patterns - Jan 03 Outline research that investigates morality and crime (6) Palmer and Hollins aimed to see if the development of moral behaviour is linked to offending in male delinquents. Compared 126 convicted males to a control group and a questionnaire method was used to measure moral reasoning along with a behavioural checklist. Found that male offenders displayed the least moral reasoning, with some displaying deficits. Hoffman proposed that punishment is less effective than positive reinforcement. His study suggested that children's moral behaviour is influenced by parental discipline, therefore nurture. Explanations of criminal behaviour - Jan 04 Outline one study of individual or cultural differences on criminal behaviour (6) Hare describes psychopaths as "arrogant, dominant, manipulative..." and believes that these personalities are due to individual differences and psychopaths living socially deviant lifestyles. Hare believes they have child like behaviours, such as ADHD and social factors cause psychopathy. ...read more.


Offender Profiling - June 04 Outline one technique used to produce and offender profile (6) A technique used is the British Approach - the "Bottom up approach" which looks for consistencies in offenders behaviour during the crime and forms psychological theories based on these which show how and why the behaviour occurred. The five factor model is based on five aspects of interaction between the victim and offender (Canter) Interpersonal Coherence Criminal characteristics Criminal career Forensic awareness Significance of time and place Psychology of testimony BP1 METHODS USED TO INVESTIGATE CONGITIVE PROCESSES One method used to investigate cognitive processes are lab experiments, which can be low in ecological validity due to showing P's events that are not real and asking questions about them. Loftus and Palmer showed P's films of car accidents in a lab before asking them questions including a critical question. This suggests that due to the situation of crime being artificial, tells us little about what factors will affect us in a real case therefore less useful. BP1 RELIABILITY OF CONGITIVE PROCESSES AND TESTIMONY Reliability is when the research can be replicated and more information on cognitive processes gathered each time it is repeated due to factors affecting processing being manipulated. Therefore, controls will be an issue. ...read more.


This means that it is low in usefulness as the sample is not representative, meaning that the results cannot be generalised to everyone who is a witness to a car accident. Validity is when the research measures how memory of an event or suspect is affected by different factors, so altering how it demonstrates problems with identification. Confounding variables are an issue when looking at validity as variables affecting suspect identification and memory outside of our controls making research less likely to be what you set out to measure. In Pickel's study of weapons focus, confounding variables such as other distractions in the room whilst watching the videotape, may lead to distortion of memory and queries whether the weapon was the true distraction. This means that confounding variables affect eyewitness testimony which could have implications, lowering the validity of the study. Reliability is an issue when examining validity as research into eyewitness testimony as the research needs to be reliable so that the same results can be found each time with similar outcomes so that EWT are accurate in the courtroom to aid investigations and prevent innocent people from being wrongly convicted. Loftus et al showed participants two different films, P's only saw either the gun or cheque which makes it easy to compare the effect of weapons on testimony and makes the study easy to repeat. This means that different factors affect our memory, which may become distorted so reliability reduced. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Social Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Social Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Preventing and Reducing Crime

    3 star(s)

    Since sociological theories can only be expressed through individual psychological behaviour, there is no firm line between sociological and psychological explanations. (Paraphrased, Blackburn, R.) There are many psychologists and control theorists in sociology that assume people are naturally 'self-seeking and deviant, hence the concern to explain conformity'.

  2. Psychological Theories Of Crime

    Stage two is instrumental relativist and na�ve hedonistic orientation. This stage is when the child has no consideration for other people but only a desire to maximize the rewards for themselves. Level two is known as the Conventional morality stage.

  1. whether leading questions can affect a person's memory of a question and insert an ...

    the object was not present in the picture. Method Design The experiment was conducted as a field experiment due to the fact that Loftus' study lacked ecological validity as it took place in laboratory settings. Conducting a field experiment for the study therefore increased its ecological validity. The more natural surroundings increased confidence in results and allowed the results to be generalised.

  2. Punishment and Treatment of Offenders

    It is suggested that a criminal may regard his imprisonment not as a consequence of his behaviour but as getting caught. Therefore his behaviour doesn't change, just the steps to avoid getting caught in the future. Apart from imprisonment there is substantial evidence that in many cases, non-custodial sentences are at least as effective as custodial ones.

  1. The Matching Hypothesis

    For comparison I also calculated the rho for the data from the random couples (see Appendix VIII). The rho was -0.02424. This figure does provide some support for the matching hypothesis as it shows that real couples are more positively correlated than random couples and could suggest it's because people

  2. Psychological Theories on Crime Prevention and Offender Treatment

    The term defensible space is what Newman used to describe the semi - private spaces around peoples homes, for example, parks, small open spaces, courtyards, gardens etc. These spaces are often claimed by the residents and therefore they will act as they deem necessary to protect that area leading to

  1. Psychology Questions Ansewered

    Bandura, Ross and Ross (aggression) Deregowski (perception) Gould (IQ Testing) Gardner and Gardner (Project Washoe) a) What do these studies tell us about how behaviour is learned or inherited? [10] b) What problems may psychologists have when they investigate whether behaviour is learned or inherited?

  2. Analyse the Studies into the Accuracy of Eyewitness Testimony

    (Tony malim,1998) Leading Questions Loftus and Palmer (1974) conducted an experiment on eyewitness testimony. In the experiment participants in the study were shown a film of a multiple car accident. Afterwards they were asked to describe what happened in their own words however, they were asked specific questions.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work