• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Psychology: Stress - questions and answers

Extracts from this document...


Tracy Thomas 12MW Psychology - Mrs Carroll Stress a) Outline 2 factors, which can modify the effects of stressors. Stressors are events that throw the body out of balance and force it to respond triggering the stress response. Stress management is the attempt to cope with the effects of the stressor through the reduction of the stress response. This can be done physically, i.e. through the use of biofeedback or anti-anxiety drugs, or psychologically, i.e. through stress inoculation or hardiness training. b) Describe the procedures and findings of one study into the effects of stress on the immune system. Keicolt-Glaser et al aimed to establish a link between stress and reduced immune function. They took 75 self-selected first year medical students and conducted a natural experiment involving varying levels of stress inflicted by exams. Using a repeated measures design, they took blood samples from each participant - once a month before exams and again on the day of their final exams. This demonstrated low and high stress levels. ...read more.


Biofeedback can involve 3 stages; 1. Developing an awareness of a specific physiological response. 2. Learn ways of controlling that response in quiet conditions. 3. Transferring that control into the conditions of everyday life. Biofeedback has been found to produce short and long term reductions in physical stress responses and the return to a level of homeostasis following the disruption in the body's natural functions caused by stress. Biofeedback does not have to only be applied to stress. Dworkin and Dworkin (1988) worked with teenagers suffering from scoliosis. The teenagers successfully used biofeedback techniques to learn how to control the muscles of their spine, thus altering their posture and allowing them to overcome the disorder. This also demonstrates the relative successes of biofeedback. Biofeedback produces a sense of control rather than just eliminating the physiological stress response. Unlike other physiological treatments for stress, such as drugs, this treatment is non-evasive and has no side effects allowing it to be used over the long term with much success. The problems involved with biofeedback are that it is difficult to tell apart from relaxation methods, making it difficult to tell which is more successful. ...read more.


They do not affect brain activity. An advantage is that beta-blockers do not cause a dependency though a problem could be recognised in that it does not target the problem only the symptoms. As with all anti-anxiety drugs there are side effects such as cold extremities, fatigue, nightmares and hallucinations. Buspirone is the most recent of the anti-anxiety drugs. It helps the effects of the neurotransmitter serotonin. It does not have sedative effects but does have side effects such as headaches and depression although there are no withdrawal symptoms. Anti anxiety drugs can be very effective in reducing the intense feeling of anxiety associated with stress though a despite this they have many flaws. A major flaw in the use of drugs to combat anxiety is that fact that they do not attack the problem causing anxiety only the responses to the anxiety as a result the problem may reoccur causing a vicious cycle involving anxiety and drug dependency. It is advised that drugs should only be used for a short-term severe cases and so do not solve long-term problems though they can cause further long terms problems through their use due to dependency and side effects. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physiological Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physiological Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Peer Pressure Speech

    3 star(s)

    It's tough if you are the only one in your group without a partner, especially when dating is often seen as a way of confirming your attractiveness to yourself and those around you. Some people are just not interested in having a relationship until they are older; others might not

  2. Stress can be explained as the stimulus in the environment that triggers a stress ...

    They encounter more difficulties & threats which may lead to more stress & so more illness. Commentary Biological, Social & Cognitive influence links between culture, stress & illness. It's difficult to identify the exact influence, because we cannot control experiments involving genetics/prejudice due to ethic issues.

  1. M.E (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome)

    * Other nervous system symptoms- a feeling of poor temperature control, dizziness in standing up, balance difficulty, increased sensitivity to light and sound. * Recurrent sore throat (with or without swollen lymph nodes) * Digestive disturbances- nausea, loss of appetite, indigestion, excessive wind, bloating, abdominal cramps, alternating diarrhoea and constipation.

  2. Insomnia its affects and its treatments.

    Typically, medical treatment isn't necessary for such short-lasting insomnia. The disorders below are examples of some of the more common chronic insomnia conditions that warrant further medical attention. Psychophysiologic, situational, or short-term insomnia usually involves sleep disturbances that last for two to three weeks which follows adjustment sleep disorder.

  1. Stress Management.

    It is successful for treating moderately stressed people, not the highly stressed (nor those lacking motivation, funds, time etc.), and there is evidence, which suggests coping with stressors is a basic aspect of personality. If correct, these techniques go against well-established habits.

  2. Can a case be made for the use of homeopathy in the treatment of ...

    Also, psychotherapy is long term and expensive, often excluding those very patients who are at the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and by definition are more likely to have reason to be depressed. 3.6 Some conclusions: As a result, the search for antidepressants that are more effective, have fewer

  1. Unit 1 psychology revsion notes (memory, attachment, research methods)

    Independent variable ? variable that the researcher manipulates Dependent Variable - variable that has direct effect from the manipulation of IV Control Variable - variable that needs to be kept the same throughout Extraneous Variable ? other variables other than the IV that will affect the DV Random sampling ?

  2. There are many relaxation techniques for stress but in this essay it will look ...

    Research also preformed in the in the 1970s by Dr. Barry Sterman, established that brain wave patterns could be controlled when doing experiments on cats and monkeys, He then used his research techniques on human patients with epilepsy.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work