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psychology: the practical project

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Introduction

The aim of this experiment was to see if Schachter & Singer's two-factor theory of emotion is supported when subjects have been given chocolate. An opportunity sample was used, made up of thirty college students, aged 16-19 years. Participants were randomly assigned into one of the two conditions. Participants in the chocolate condition were given 4 squares of chocolate and then filled in a questionnaire which assessed their happiness. Participants in the no chocolate condition were just given the questionnaire to complete. Those in the chocolate condition were expected to rate their happiness higher than those in the no chocolate condition. The Mann-Whitney U results supported the experimental hypothesis; therefore the study showed evidence to support the two-fact theory of emotion. This study is about the Two-Factor Theory of Emotion, which is part of social psychology. This theory states that in order for an emotion to be felt two factors need to be present: physiological arousal and cognitive label of the physiological arousal. According to the theory emotions are always about something either externally stimulus or memory. This experiment is based on a study by Schacter & Singer (1962), subjects were allocated to one of the four groups: Adrenalin Ignorant Group were given an adrenalin injection and were not told the effects of the drug, Adrenalin Informed Group ...read more.

Middle

This indicates that those in the chocolate condition felt slightly happier than those in the no chocolate condition. This is also supported by the Mode, as the mode for group 1 was higher than for group 2. The median is the most suitable measure of central tendency for this study as the data collected was ordinal. This also showed that generally group 1 rated their happiness higher than group 2. A higher median indicates that group 1 had higher happiness scores overall. In order to find out whether the results were due to chance factors a Mann-Whitney U test was carried out. The observed value of U was 52 and the critical value was 64 at a 0.05 level of significance. As the observed value of U was smaller than the critical value the experimental hypothesis was accepted and the null hypothesis was rejected (Appendix 6, Page 10). The graphs show a range of answers from the two groups. In group one the happiness scores range from 3 to 5 and in group two the happiness scores range from 2 to 4. From the graphs it can be seen that majority of subjects in both of the groups rated their happiness 3 or 4. ...read more.

Conclusion

5 Mean: Happiness score total= 59 59/15= 3.9 Rounded off to the nearest whole number= 4 Mode: 4 Subject Happiness Score 1 4 2 4 3 3 4 3 5 3 6 2 7 3 8 3 9 3 10 2 11 3 12 3 13 2 14 4 15 4 Group 2: A Table Showing Subjects Rated happiness Scores Median Happiness scores in order: 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4 Mean: Happiness score total= 46 46/15= 3 Mode: 3 Appendix 6: Mann-Whitney U Test Step 1: Chocolate Condition No Chocolate Condition Happiness Score Rank A Happiness Score Rank B 4 21.5 4 21.5 3 10 4 21.5 3 10 3 10 3 10 3 10 3 10 3 10 4 21.5 2 2 5 28.5 3 10 4 21.5 3 10 4 21.5 3 10 4 21.5 2 2 5 28.5 3 10 5 28.5 3 10 3 10 2 2 4 21.5 4 21.5 5 28.5 4 21.5 NA= 15 NB= 15 Step 2: NA x NB = 15x 15= 225 Step 3: 15 + 1= 16 Step 4: 16x15 = 240 = 120 2 2 Step 5: Rank A= 293 Step 6: (225+120) - 293= 52 Step 7: 225-52= 173 UA= 52 UB= 173 Critical value at 0. ...read more.

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