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MARK SUFFOLK GROUP A PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND THERAPIES There are different therapies available in psychopathology. All treatments are supposed to benefit the patient. However as therapists charge for these services it is sometimes unclear how much of the treatment is for the benefit of the patient and how much is for the therapist, because of this ethical issues arise. One approach is psychoanalysis. The main technique is free association, the patient is encouraged to talk freely about their childhood and relationships. The aim of psychoanalysis is to make people happier and better adjusted, and as the patient is talking freely the patient is actively involved in the process. However a problem is that the therapy is difficult to evaluate as happiness is hard to measure. It is also important to note that patients are paying a lot of money to a psychoanalysist and it isn't obvious when the treatment should cease. The treatment could last for years therefore this raises the issue of who is getting the most benefit the patient or the therapist. Patients also have to give consent to the therapy at the beginning, because of this the patient sometimes feels obliged to carry on with the treatment even if they are not happy to do so. ...read more.


Behaviourists use classical conditioning techniques for the treatment of phobias. One such technique is flooding. The patient is overloaded with whatever stimulus the patient is afraid of. However there is a great deal of stress involved to the patient as the fear of the stimulus is too great, and consequently many patients cannot handle flooding. In some instances a different technique is employed called counter conditioning. This technique is used in a gradual way known as systematic desensitisation. This involves the patient establishing a fear hierarchy of what is acceptable. The patient and therapist work through the fear hierarchy and when the patient is relaxed at one stage the patient moves onto the next. This is less stressful to the patient as they are in control before they move on to the next stage. This has also been used with success by big companies such as British Airways and London Zoo as a cure for phobias. Based on the principles of operant conditioning, institutions often use a token economy system. It is used as a way of modifying behaviour. If the patient is deemed to have behaved in a positive way they are given tokens which can be exchanged for various treats such as time watching television or cigarettes. ...read more.


They have a vested interest in convincing people of the need for these drugs by advertising results of trials that support their drug, however S.A.N.E have compared research on Prozac and Seroxat and found that in a majority of cases a placebo worked just as well. A.D.H.D is increasingly diagnosed in children, particularly in the USA. These children are then prescribed drugs, however many people argue that these children are just naughty and they have parents with poor parenting skills. These drugs are given to calm these children down, but there is a risk of long term damage to these children. Thomas Szas argued that metal illness is a myth. He stated that you can have brain disease but it should be called that, as the mind is not physical it cannot be sick. Szaz also argued that maybe people just have a problem with living. At the present time there are a variety of therapies available. However there isn't a proper way for patients and therapists to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of these treatments. Holmes argued that there is the need for a professional framework to help patients and therapists make an informed choice about which form of treatment is suitable for a particular person. ...read more.

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