• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Read case study and set out a programme of intervention based on the principles of 'What Works'. Include awareness of theoretical background to effective practice, programme design, including evaluation and methods of intervention.

Extracts from this document...


Read case study and set out a programme of intervention based on the principles of 'What Works'. Include awareness of theoretical background to effective practice, programme design, including evaluation and methods of intervention. When considering to assess and address offending behaviour there exist a variety of methods of interventions, which are adopted as a means to reduce and eradicate offending behaviour, with such interventions predominantly amalgamating the 'What Works' initiative. In addressing the case study of Mary Tudor, the essay will devise a programme of intervention, which will very much reflect the ideals of 'What Works'. Therefore, to address the essay title and establish a programme of intervention, to assist Mary in reducing her offending behaviour the essay will analyse three prerequisites, assessment, programme delivery and evaluation, which are essential elements to incorporate, when creating such a programme. Firstly it is necessary to give a brief introduction to the theoretical background of the 'What Works' initiative. Much of the work in reducing offending behaviour during the 1960's and 1970's was discouraged with a lack of research evidence. Much of Britain's beliefs centred around the ideals of the 'treatment model', culminating the doctrine of 'nothing works', with much of the evidence concluding such view, which was drawn together from existing treatment-outcome studies. Such notion of thought derived from Martinson 1974 who expressed a "radical flaw in our present strategies- that education at its best, or ...read more.


Designing a programme of intervention refers to the embodiment of knowledge, which reflects a theoretical framework of evidence depicting what works for whom and in what circumstances. Underdown (1998), proposes a model of service design which accommodates five layers of services and programmes, ranging form the offender to the community. The first three layers incorporate cognitive-behavioural training and personal development, depicting work "on the underlying processes of cognition, patterns of behaviour or process of individual development" (Underdown, 1998, P.33). The second layer incorporates challenging offending choices which advocates offenders to castigate past and present day offending choices which will seek to construct appropriate future behaviour, and social and moral education. This technique seeks to cultivate and inform offenders of the applicable social and moral issues appropriate for life in society. The lower layers of the model comprise of the resolving of problems, meeting needs in family and community, which seeks to equip the offender with skills to administer their own initiative to progress in such areas as accommodation, money and employment, and community opportunities and reintegration which transgress the application of the new skills developed in the higher layers to consolidate the offenders potential to aspire the development of further opportunities. The crux of this model is that whilst some layers of the model may depict more priority over others, depending on the offender targeted, the model demonstrates how each layer reciprocates on another, effectively embracing a wide range of offending-related needs. ...read more.


Such goals can be measured by an offender feedback evaluation or by the cycle of change. This model comprises of six stages, pre- contemplation, where the offender does not identify offending as a problem, contemplation, offender recognises a problem but is ambivalent about change, determination, where there exists motivation to change, action, the offender attempts to change, maintenance, change is maintained but relapse is a likely and relapse, where a setback can occur. Situated within the stages of this model are gains but setbacks and relapses are to be expected and managed but the emphasis is on gradual gains towards the intended outcome. In conclusion to this essay, the essay has proposed a programme of intervention integrated through which are the principles of 'what works'. The initial driving force behind the 'What Works' agenda was that various forms of approaches demonstrated to be more effective than other methods pointing those agencies who work in the field with offenders in the right direction towards constructing effective programmes. The introduction of the 'What Works' agenda and National Standards has comprehensively led to structural and organisational changes to the Probation Service but it is essential that the imposition of these changes does not undermine the mere essence of 'What Works' and that the provisions of such programmes are systematically evaluated for the continuity of successful programmes for the foreseeable future. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. Describe processes for initiating, maintaining, developing and concluding a counselling relation.

    The groups Stop it Now! want to engage with are; Adults who have abused or are thinking about abusing a child; to encourage them to recognise their behavior as abusive and to seek help to change. Family and friends of abusers; to help them recognise the signs of abusive behavior and seek advice about what action to take.

  2. c hallenging a client to change

    Any statement or behaviour that does not represent self is challenged. Techniques of Gestalt therapy - The chair: Clients' move forwards and backwards from one chair to another and engage in dialogue between parts of themselves, between other people or between dream objects.

  1. Explain the factors which affect children's behaviour. Include information about self-esteem, self reliance, variations ...

    To help children gain a positive view of themselves, it is important that practitioners praise children and also encourage them to do things for themselves. Being independent gives children inner confidence and thus aids self-esteem. Persona dolls can be used to help to promote self-esteem.

  2. Free essay

    Unmasking Anxiety with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    "Overall premature discontinuation rates (all cases including adverse events) were [19%] for patients receiving LEXAPRO and [15%] for patients receiving placebo" (Frx.com). Though the BNC recognizes that drug therapy may be useful for some patients, they also recognize that CBT is effective for Anxiety Reduction, and may be recommended in addition to other treatment (BNC).

  1. Report on Reading Dads Promotion at Leicester Prison

    Poetry writing workshops - delivered in conjunction with Leicestershire County Libraries Literature Development Officer. These workshops explored children's poetry and demonstrated easy methods for participants to create their own poems. Workshops assumed a certain level of literacy but all learners were supported if required.

  2. impact of dicriminatory practice

    (The impact of discrimination on children, 2001, www.teachernet.gov.uk/) Lindon (2004:128) explains that discrimination in any form can make people feel "unimportant, worthless, frustrated and angry." It can also affect qualifications, jobs and other aspects of life. http://www.counselling-directory.org.uk reaffirms this statement: Discrimination "...reduces opportunities in education, housing and employment - all

  1. Free essay

    A qualitative study to explore the meaning of identity using interview data and relating ...

    But there was not, no opening. And to a certain extent things were governed by how much money you had to be able to pursue certain things (Jo) [lines 72-77]. It appears here that Tony is suggesting that life is possibly easier now: And I think that you can do so much more now with with less qualification.

  2. report that shows your reflection on and evaluation of your personal style and the ...

    For this, he filmed a young woman hitting, punching and kicking an inflatable doll, shouting 'sockeroo' at it. He showed this film to a group of young children, then sent them into the room with the Bobo doll in. The children imitated what the woman had done, assaulting the doll, using the same language that she had.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work