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Read case study and set out a programme of intervention based on the principles of 'What Works'. Include awareness of theoretical background to effective practice, programme design, including evaluation and methods of intervention.

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Introduction

Read case study and set out a programme of intervention based on the principles of 'What Works'. Include awareness of theoretical background to effective practice, programme design, including evaluation and methods of intervention. When considering to assess and address offending behaviour there exist a variety of methods of interventions, which are adopted as a means to reduce and eradicate offending behaviour, with such interventions predominantly amalgamating the 'What Works' initiative. In addressing the case study of Mary Tudor, the essay will devise a programme of intervention, which will very much reflect the ideals of 'What Works'. Therefore, to address the essay title and establish a programme of intervention, to assist Mary in reducing her offending behaviour the essay will analyse three prerequisites, assessment, programme delivery and evaluation, which are essential elements to incorporate, when creating such a programme. Firstly it is necessary to give a brief introduction to the theoretical background of the 'What Works' initiative. Much of the work in reducing offending behaviour during the 1960's and 1970's was discouraged with a lack of research evidence. Much of Britain's beliefs centred around the ideals of the 'treatment model', culminating the doctrine of 'nothing works', with much of the evidence concluding such view, which was drawn together from existing treatment-outcome studies. Such notion of thought derived from Martinson 1974 who expressed a "radical flaw in our present strategies- that education at its best, or ...read more.

Middle

Designing a programme of intervention refers to the embodiment of knowledge, which reflects a theoretical framework of evidence depicting what works for whom and in what circumstances. Underdown (1998), proposes a model of service design which accommodates five layers of services and programmes, ranging form the offender to the community. The first three layers incorporate cognitive-behavioural training and personal development, depicting work "on the underlying processes of cognition, patterns of behaviour or process of individual development" (Underdown, 1998, P.33). The second layer incorporates challenging offending choices which advocates offenders to castigate past and present day offending choices which will seek to construct appropriate future behaviour, and social and moral education. This technique seeks to cultivate and inform offenders of the applicable social and moral issues appropriate for life in society. The lower layers of the model comprise of the resolving of problems, meeting needs in family and community, which seeks to equip the offender with skills to administer their own initiative to progress in such areas as accommodation, money and employment, and community opportunities and reintegration which transgress the application of the new skills developed in the higher layers to consolidate the offenders potential to aspire the development of further opportunities. The crux of this model is that whilst some layers of the model may depict more priority over others, depending on the offender targeted, the model demonstrates how each layer reciprocates on another, effectively embracing a wide range of offending-related needs. ...read more.

Conclusion

Such goals can be measured by an offender feedback evaluation or by the cycle of change. This model comprises of six stages, pre- contemplation, where the offender does not identify offending as a problem, contemplation, offender recognises a problem but is ambivalent about change, determination, where there exists motivation to change, action, the offender attempts to change, maintenance, change is maintained but relapse is a likely and relapse, where a setback can occur. Situated within the stages of this model are gains but setbacks and relapses are to be expected and managed but the emphasis is on gradual gains towards the intended outcome. In conclusion to this essay, the essay has proposed a programme of intervention integrated through which are the principles of 'what works'. The initial driving force behind the 'What Works' agenda was that various forms of approaches demonstrated to be more effective than other methods pointing those agencies who work in the field with offenders in the right direction towards constructing effective programmes. The introduction of the 'What Works' agenda and National Standards has comprehensively led to structural and organisational changes to the Probation Service but it is essential that the imposition of these changes does not undermine the mere essence of 'What Works' and that the provisions of such programmes are systematically evaluated for the continuity of successful programmes for the foreseeable future. ...read more.

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