• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Sigmund Freud first introduced repression in 1895.

Extracts from this document...


Psychology Homework. * Three differences between long term memory and short-term memory are capacity, duration and encoding. Capacity in short term memory is 9 items and duration is 20 seconds if information is not rehearsed. However, both of these in long-term memory are unlimited. Encoding in short term memory is mostly acoustic, that is, we store information as sounds by repeating it over and over to ourselves verbally. Encoding in long-term memory is mainly semantic. This is when we remember information because of the meaning of it. We can also use other codes such as visual, taste, acoustic and smell in long term memory. * George Miller investigated the capacity of short-term memory by using the digit-span technique. He read participants a list of numbers, ranging from four numbers in a set, to ten numbers in a set. He then told participants to write the numbers down after he had finished reading out each set. ...read more.


Her own father had sexually abused Susan and beaten her to death with a rock in front of Eileen. She was threatened that if she told anyone her father would kill her too. Her father was later found guilty of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment. A criticism of the theory of repression is that the memories are not easy to retrieve. Even if they were, recreating repressed memories in laboratory conditions is extremely difficult and it would be exceedingly unethical to subject participants to the stress of reliving such situations. If the memory was repressed, it was obviously so terrifying the person chose to purposefully forget it so bringing the memory back in to conscious mind would be highly unorthodox. There are several other explanations in the factor of forgetting. One of these is trace decay theory. This happens in short-term memory. It assumes that memories leave a trace in the brain. ...read more.


The other two types of retrieval failure occur because of encoding. The first type has to do with the physical/psychological state you are in when the information is being encoded into long-term memory. If you are in a happy mood it is more likely you will remember something you did whilst happy if you get into the same state of mind again. Also, when you are happy you tend not to remember anything sad that has happened but all the good things that have happened that have made you smile stick out in your mind. The second type of retrieval has to do with the place you are in when you encode the information. It has been found that encoding in one environment and retrieving the information in another is les effective than encoding and retrieval in the same environment. This has to do with things in your surroundings you look at whilst you are encoding something and when you look at these things again you are more likely to remember them. This is also known as using cues to help retrieve information. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays


    A final improvement that would be added would be to test different time of day for the memory recall as it would be interesting to see whether this had affect on how many words you could recall. It would also help identify which time of day participants are more alert on.

  2. Investigating the short-term memory

    No one participating in the study was harmed physically, emotionally or mentally also. To ensure this, participants were constantly reminded in the experiment that they could withdraw at any stage, which ensured the legitimacy of the experiment. It is a strength also that almost all research obtained supports the relevant

  1. Psychology Retrospective Interference coursework

    There were only three independent variables tested in this experiment (resting, synonym, and antonym conditions) where as McGeoch and McDonald's experiment examined six different independent variables. Therefore, this experiment could be improved by including more independent variables to be tested.

  2. Investigation into acoustic and visual encoding in short-term memory

    The lists were presented four times and recall was tested after 20 minutes. Under these conditions, participants found recall of the semantically similar words much more difficult then recall of the acoustically similar words.

  1. To What Extent Is motivated Forgetting Produced By Failure Feedback?

    It was made sure that there was an even distribution of sexes, in each condition, taking part in the experiment because it could have distorted the results because either one or the other sex could have better memories. Also all the participants taking part had to be 16 and over.

  2. Retrieval Induced Forgetting in Coherent Narrative Text.

    The recall of Rp- items was significantly lower than that of Nrp items. The results also showed retrieval practice enhanced recall performance on practiced items from the previously practiced island. However, the retrieval practice also impaired recall on unpracticed items relative from one island to another. Macrae and Macleod (1999)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work