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PSYCH SOCIAL PHOBIA American Description: The fear when you're in a social situation in which you may be exposed to some kind of harm, or so as you may think. It can arouse a panic attack, the person's fear is noticeable and they would rather avoid such situations. It is normally diagnosed in people under 18, and can last for about 6 months. This fear is not created because of a drug, and if a general condition is present, it is not related to it in any way. European Description: Often starts in adolescence and is experienced around small groups of people. It can be seen in both males and females. In some cultures, direct eye-to-eye contact can be stressful, and nausea, hand tremor and panic attacks may be seen too. Most of this is related to low self-esteem and there is always a prevailing fear of being criticized. In extreme cases, total isolation may be experienced Treatment: Most phobias can be treated through therapy, however in very extreme cases, pharmacotherapy (includes the use of antidepressant drugs) ...read more.


The period can last for about a year, and the tics occur as frequently as a few times a day. European Description: A tic is defined as a sudden and involuntary movement, which is of no use but may be suppressed. Common tics include blinking of the eye, sniffing, shrugging your shoulders whereas more complex ones can be more physical, such as skipping around, or even causing harm to one self. It is an uncommon, chronic disorder which occurs more in males compared to females and has been proved hereditary. De la Tourrette's Syndrome is when there's a lot of overlap of vocal and physical tics which can be observed during childhood or adolescence, and can lead on into a patient's adult life too. Tics may be suppressed and can be put off by going to sleep! Recent research: + Magazine Article Sleeping Patterns in children with Tourette syndrome: a polysomnographic study To evaluate data on sleep quantity/quality and tics during night sleep in children with Tourette syndrome Polysomnography of teenage and young kids who suffered from Tourettes were taken [ they did not have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ]. ...read more.


Total tic score was being measured. 34 participants (26 children and 8 adults) from 6 to 62 years were available. Total Tic scores were similar at baseline (26.0 +/- 5.1 for risperidone vs 27.4 +/- 8.5 for placebo). After 8 weeks of treatment (mean daily dose of 2.5 +/- 0.85), the 16 subjects on risperidone showed a 32% reduction in tic severity from baseline, compared to a 7% reduction for placebo patients. The 12 children randomized to risperidone showed a 36% reduction in tic symptoms compared to an 11% decrease in the 14 children on placebo. Two children on risperidone showed acute social phobia, which resolved with dose reduction in one subject but resulted in medication discontinuation in the other. A mean increase in body weight of 2.8 kg was observed in the risperidone group compared to no change in placebo. No extrapyramidal symptoms and no clinically significant alterations in cardiac conduction times or laboratory measures were observed. Therefore it was seen that Risperidone appears to be safe and effective for short-term treatment of tics in children or adults with Tourette syndrome. Longer-term studies are needed to evaluate the durability of efficacy and safety over time. ...read more.

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