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Social Psychology

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Introduction

Social Psychology Abstract A major component of Social Psychological research is based on social loafing. Social loafing can result in diverse possibilities and also not only affects the individual who is conducting the social phenomenon but also group members are subjected to exposure. Discussion regarding the reasons of social loafing as an occurrence will be based primarily on evidence from literature regarding the specific component, envy. Possibilities of outcomes range from members being awarded unfair workloads or dissatisfaction, to group performance being decreased. Theories that support some of these and other notions will become evident after the recognition of previous research findings. Discussion will be based primarily on Ringleman who is supported by Ingham and also Latane, Karau Williams and Harkins (specifically Latane) and. To sum up, personal opinion will be reviewed and compared to its validity in reducing social loafing in an educational setting. 'Educational setting', on this occasion is specifically referring to groups of University students creating poster presentations. Initially the definition of social loafing according to a recognised Psychology dictionary will be stated. The dilemma as to what aspects result in 'social loafing' is recognised in this literature with differences from theories, concepts and experiments as cited being evaluated. This evidence is aimed to acknowledge and prove the predicament of the affects and causes related to 'social loafing'. ...read more.

Middle

His next task involved three participants to do the same task as conducted by individuals. Based on the average, a result of 415.8 pounds was expected. This theory became questionable when results were recorded at 346.5, only two and a half times the expected outcome. A further result supports the outcome of social loafing when eight participants were asked to perform this task. The expected outcome was 1108.8 but results were 545.6. This experiment maybe subjected to disagreement of 'social loafing' due to interference from diverse reasons. These could be based on co-ordination problems, decreased efficiency or an insufficient area to allow desired grasp. (Social Psychology, 1983:544) However afterwards, results of experiments conducted by Alan Ingham (Ingham et al, 1974 as cited in Social Psychology, 1983:545) supported Ringlemans theory that social loafing occurs usually in a group environment as opposed to tasks for an individual. Ingham et al conducted similar circumstances with two exceptions. The first being that participants were blindfolded. The other was that when participants were meant to be pulling the rope in-group circumstances individual responses were actually recorded as all but one had been told to only hold the rope and not heave. Results were conclusive and showed when people believed they were pulling with others less effort was produced. Latan´┐Ż investigated the phenomenon of social loafing, which states that in a group of people each one contributes less than he or she would contribute alone. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is the tendency for people to perform worse on simple tasks, yet better at complex tasks when they are in the presence of others. This appears to be a direct contradiction to Social Facilitation, but can be explained by the differing circumstances in which it occurs. In particular, when we are working in a group, it can be easier to conceal laziness when working in a group of people who are working together. The key here is that the loafer is not worried about being evaluated. This can also be an attraction of being an acknowledge expert or in a position of authority: although it may take time to climb the mountain, you may be able to relax once you have got there. However, when we are being evaluated, such as when working on a team task, we will work hard to ensure nobody can criticize us for not pulling our weight. People who have less concern for groups are more likely to be social loafers, such as men and Western societies in general. Diverse applications regarding the cure for the occurrence of social loafing have been suggested for specific forms of environmental contributions. The approach that is likely to be most effective would be self-evaluation. This involves group members evaluating each other and themselves. It would be suggested that it be essential individuals were aware that self-evaluation would be part of the final assessment to achieve full potential of everyone. ...read more.

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