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Some psychologists believe that we simply rehearse things and that is how we remember. By rehearsing it leaves our short-term memory and enters our long-term memory.

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Introduction

Introduction Background Information Some psychologists believe that we simply rehearse things and that is how we remember. By rehearsing it leaves our short-term memory and enters our long-term memory. This does not explain why we forget things or why certain things help us to remember. The effect of context forgetting is known as context dependent forgetting or cue dependent forgetting. We need the right cues to access information. Good evidence for cue dependent forgetting comes from Tulving (1966). Tulving read people lists of words from various categories e.g. furniture or animals. The category names were also presented but the participants were not asked to remember the category names just the examples e.g. chair, table etc. They found that, in free recall those participants who were given the paper with the category names as headings remembered more words than those just given a blank sheet of paper. This demonstrates how cues can guide information in memory that we were unable to otherwise. Tulving (1974) also distinguished between context dependent recall and state dependent recall. Context dependent recall relates to externally generated cues from the environment. ...read more.

Middle

* When they have been shown all of the word pairs, the music is stopped. * They are then given a distracter task. * After 45 seconds they are told to stop. * They are then shown the pairs of words again, but the right hand side are missing. They still get shown one word at a time, until all words have been shown and they are asked to recall the other word. * The same steps are followed for Condition B but with the music kept on. Another word list is used. * Asked to recall with music on. * A debriefing. See Appendices Controls * All Participants were given a consent form. * Were given instruction sheets. * Were in the same room. * Were shown the same word pairs. * BPS guidelines were followed. Results Raw Data Correct Participant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Condition A Music on turned off when asked to match pairs. 5 5 4 9 0 6 4 8 4 8 4 7 2 2 5 3 6 0 3 11 Condition B Music kept on when asked to give pairs. ...read more.

Conclusion

Implications My background information like Tulving and Godden and Baddeley suggest that cues help recall. I used music as a cue in my experiment and that did not appear to help recall. The difference in the two conditions was very narrow. This may indicate that the experiment was wrong in some way. Generalisation of Findings The experiment was done on 20 17-19 year olds who are studying AS or A2 levels. You cannot generalise to the rest of the population as students are trained to remember as they have been in education since the age of 5. You could therefore only generalise on 17-19 year olds in full time education. It did not tell us about age or gender. A sample of 20 is far too small to generalise from, as 20 people cannot account for everyone in the rest of the population. Application to everyday life In many situations cues can be very helpful. Students use cues to help them to revise for exams and the examiner can use a stimulus to help the student to remember in exams. E.g. after revising for psychology, students could use Tulving's ideas to create categories of information to make the work more manageable and easier to remember. Makeshya Maitland-Campbell Page 1 of 8 ...read more.

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