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Sport Psychology Researcher

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Introduction

Sport Psychology Researcher Task 1 "Personality is the supreme realization of the innate idiosyncrasy of a living being. It is an act of high courage flung in the face of life, the absolute affirmation of all that constitutes the individual, the most successful adaptation to the universal condition of existence coupled with the greatest possible freedom for self-determination." (Carl Gustav Jung, 1934) Sports performances can be put down to individual differences, personality theories have been linked to individual performances. There are three personality theories; * Biological This theory is some what controversial with no scientific proof backing it up. Sheldon classified personality according to body type. He called this a person's somatotype. There are three main somatotypes, 1. Endomorph- (fat, wide hips, plump) Relaxed, sociable, tolerant, comfort-loving, peaceful In sporting performance this somatotype could be said to be more laid-back and not so aggressive. 2. Mesomorph- (muscular, "v" shaped body) Active, assertive, vigorous, combative In sporting performance this somatotype could be said to be more aggressive than the other two, as the body should be more active than the other two. 3. Ectomorph- (skinny, poor muscles, bony) Quiet, fragile, restrained, non-assertive, sensitive In sporting performance this somatotype could be said to be more shy and quite, and not as aggressive as the other two as the physical appearance of the body can not back the aggression up. ...read more.

Middle

This will be increased even more so if the performer being watched is seen to be rewarded for his performance. In contrast to this, players being modelled by others can have highly disruptive effects on the receiver's performance. Players that show undesirable aspects of the game such as violence, bad sportsmanship or a lazy attitude e.g. fighting can create an image for the recipient that that kind of behaviour is acceptable. (Information from http://www.ship.edu/%7Ecgboeree/bandura.html) http://academic.evergreen.edu/h/hiljus01/bobo.htm Task 2 Baron (1977) defines aggression as the following: "Any behaviour directed at the goal of harming or injuring another being who is motivated to avoid such treatment." There are certain types of aggression, some within the rules or laws of the game and others that do not. Hostile aggression is said to be aggressive acts motivated by anger that have the intent and goal of harming another but also is not with in the rules/laws. An example of this in rugby would be a dangerous tackle above the shoulders/ round the head or neck of the opposition, a spear tackle, were a player is lifted off the ground and dropped head first into the ground also throwing a punch is outside the rules and can result in a sending off or sin bin. Another form of aggression is instrumental aggression, which are aggressive acts that are intended to harm another person with the goal of achieving a goal without suffering. ...read more.

Conclusion

This would suit their personalities. Activities such as long-distance running or triathlon which has a large continuous element could be demotivating and boring. On the other hand Introverts "have high levels of excitation naturally occurring within them (over aroused). So therefore they have no need to seek excitement in order to function at an optimum level." (Wesson et al 2000) Introverts according to Eysenck achieve high levels of performance at lower levels of arousal, sports such as shooting or long-distance running. How we deal with a sports situation can be linked to trait theories and our personalities, for example if you were assessed as being angry and easily loose your temper. Then this is how you would respond in a given situation. Such as, if your losing you will start being aggressive towards other people and might lash-out. According to the Instinct theory, it is a natural occurrence for humans to act in an aggressive way. Sport can be seen a back to the instinctive ways of humans were it could not be allowed to happen in society because of laws. The nature of sport has a competitive and some time physical element. Human's natural instinct can come out to win and not to be defeated in sports. Social- learning theory does not agree with the above, it suggests that we act aggressively because we have seen a significant other do so, and we see those actions as acceptable and good. ...read more.

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