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Stress Management.

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Introduction

Lyndsey Paterson Stress Management a) One physicall approach to stress management is through the use of drugs. Drugs intervene in the activity of the ANS. They can be effective in reducing stress in the short term. They are emotion, not problem, based and therefore are not effective method of stress management in the long term as they do not tackle they source of the problem. Examples of drugs used for stress management are: - Benzodiazepines (e.g. Valium, Librium), which reduce the activity of the neurotransmitter Serotonin, which has an inhibitory effect on the brain muscle relaxation and overall calming effect. Beta Blockers slow the heart rate, reduce the strength of its contractions and reduces blood pressure. They block receptors in the heart stimulated by noradrenaline (i.e. decreases sympathetic nervous system activity. b) Rotter (1966) suggested that it is not the source of stresses that are important, but how people feel about them, especially whether people felt they had control or not. From a questionnaire he concluded that people either have an internal or external locus of control. He found that people were very consistent in their attitudes Karasek (1979) preformed an analysis of US and Swedish studies of work stress. ...read more.

Middle

Green (2000) suggests it may give people more confidence to deal with stressful situations. It is also non-invasive. However, it does not tackle the source of the stress. Meichenbaun's Stress Inoculation Training (1977) aimed to manage stress before anxiety sets in. This is done in three stages, the first being conceptualisation. The client is encouraged to relive stressful situations and analyse what was stressful about it, how they attempted to cope and how they could be eliminated. The second stage is stress reduction techniques. During this stage the client is taught a variety of specific and non-specific techniques (e.g. relaxation, social skill, time management etc.) in a therapeutic situation. The individual practices coping self-statements; negative self-statements are identified and rejected. The final stage is real life application and follow through. During this stage the client and therapist role-play until finally the techniques are put into practice in the real world. The model focuses on both the nature of the stress and ways of coping. It combines cognitive strategies and behavioural techniques. Meichenbaun himself claims encouraging results, however, few controlled studies have confirmed the predictions. ...read more.

Conclusion

Co relational studies, where levels of fitness and exercise are recorded, along with frequency of stress related disorders, such as high blood pressure and depression, show consistent exercise is associated with low levels of depression and lower incidence of hypertension. Physical exercise is an obvious and effective way of removing excess glucose and fats: they are mobilized to provide for physical activity and blood levels fall as the muscles burn them up. It is predictable that regular exercise should have beneficial effects on stress related arousal. Social support is another mediating factor. Social support helps protect us against the damaging effects of stress. The value of social support also helps explain the upsurge in unofficial support groups in particular areas. There are various categories of social supports, e.g. emotional support such as comfort and reassurance, practical support from friends and family, or advice. The concept of control is central to stress and stress management. Gaining control is an important part of coping strategy in stress management. Pervious experiences could provide useful techniques for future coping if stressful, or previous failure could provide the individual with a negative attitude. Individual differences could also affect the effectiveness of psychological techniques as some people may protect themselves through denial or detachment. Stress management techniques increase the stress felt by these individuals. ...read more.

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