• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13

Stroop Effect

Extracts from this document...


Muhammad Kermali AQA A level psychology coursework Abstract In the 1900's J Ridley Stroop demonstrated that if someone was reading information, and other conflicting inputs were added, the rate at which the person read would slow down. The aim of this investigation is to see whether it takes the participants longer to read a list of colours typed in black ink, or whether it takes the participants longer to read the list of colours typed in coloured ink. The hypothesis I have for this investigation is that it will take the participants longer to read the list of colours typed in coloured ink than it will take the participants to read the list of colours typed in black ink. My target population will be 6th Form students at Graveney School, and my sampling method will be opportunity sampling. Introduction In the early 1900's, the Stroop effect was discovered by J.Ridley Stroop. Two cognitive processes are involved with this theory. These are controlled and automatic processing. In the standard stroop task, participants are often exposed to three conditions: congruent, incongruent and neutral. In the congruent condition, colour words (such as red or blue) are presented in consistent ink colours. (eg the word blue printed in blue). In the incongruent condition, colour words are presented in inconsistent ink colours. (eg the word blue printed in red)both of theses conditions are compared with a neutral condition in which the participants name the colour of a non-colour word or row of Xs. When the task is to name the printed colour of the word, and the word is inconsistent with the colour it is printed in (incongruent conditions), participants are slower to name the colour of that word compared with the neutral condition. This is called the Stroop Effect. Two cognitive processes are involved in the Stroop effect. These are controlled and automatic processing This was put forward by Schneider and Shiffrin in 1977. ...read more.


The participant struggled on a few of the colour words since they were not distinctively clear of to which colour it was. Also the participant found it hard to scroll down two different columns on the same A4 paper of the two lists. After the pilot study, a new pair of lists was made with more common colours and each of the lists in one column of the paper. Also a stop watch was used to measure the time taken for each participant to successfully complete the two lists. This was measured in milliseconds at first but either rounded down or up into whole seconds. Procedures: Instructions were given to all the participants. These were standardised to make sure participants did not hear anything incorrect which will affect their understanding. Inaccurate results could occur because of this and can question the validity of the experiment. The full standardised instructions can be seen in (Appendix 2) Different candidates were asked if they wished to participate in the experiment. A briefing was given to explain the study and for any questions to be asked. A consent form was also filled out. Assure the participants that intelligence is not being measured and that the participants can withdraw any time. After completion of the task a debriefing must take place informing the participant about the true nature of the study. The first five participants were selected. They had to name the nouns words first and then the colour words and the other five had to name the colour words first and then the noun words. This made sure counterbalancing was used to minimise order affects. To view the two lists in full (see appendix two). When the stopwatch was ready I asked them to start naming the colour of the ink on both lists. One word at a time was revealed to them and if they named the wrong ink colour then the next word would not be revealed to them until they responded correctly. ...read more.


They researcher will say "go" and will start the stopwatch. One word will be revealed at a time and each time a successful response is given, another word would be revealed. The next word would not be revealed until a correct response is given. After completion of the first list, the time will be recorded and the same will happen with list two. Any questions Appendix 3 Time taken to read out the two lists Person No. Noun Words (seconds) Colour Words (seconds) Participant 1 29 33 Participant 2 34 44 Participant 3 30 32 Participant 4 32 36 Participant 5 31 34 Participant 6 27 28 Participant 7 28 33 Participant 8 28 41 Participant 9 25 32 Participant 10 23 25 Mean Time (seconds) 29 34 Appendix 4 Noun word list Participant Time (seconds) Mean time (seconds) (time - mean) (time - mean)� 1 29 29 0 0 2 34 29 5 25 3 30 29 1 1 4 32 29 3 9 5 31 29 2 4 6 27 29 -2 4 7 28 29 -1 1 8 28 29 -1 1 9 25 29 -4 16 10 23 29 -6 36 ?(t - m)� = 97 (?(t - m)�)/n-1 = 11 standrd deviation 3 Colour word list Participant Time (seconds) Mean time (seconds) (time - mean) (time - mean)� 1 33 34 -1 1 2 44 34 10 100 3 32 34 -2 4 4 36 34 2 4 5 34 34 0 0 6 28 34 -6 36 7 33 34 -1 1 8 41 34 7 49 9 32 34 -2 4 10 25 34 -9 81 ?(t - m)� = 280 (?(t - m)�)/n-1 = 31 standrd deviation 6 Appendix 5 Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Sign Rank Test Number Noun Words (sec) Colour Words (sec) d Rankings 1 29 33 -4 5.5 2 34 44 -10 9 3 30 32 -2 2.5 4 32 36 -4 5.5 5 31 34 -3 4 6 27 28 -1 1 7 28 33 -5 7 8 28 41 -13 10 9 25 32 -7 8 10 23 25 -2 2. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Primacy and Recency effect

    the notes needed to learn placed at the top and at the end of the list which will help recall of information to be improved. As this experiment was a controlled experiment, it may be considered that the results collected are not ecological valid as the results are not collected from a natural environment.

  2. Psychology Retrospective Interference coursework

    However, the sample was not too small to be unrepresentative and 30 was a manageable amount of participants. Different genders in this experiment are considered as a confounding variable since different genders have their individual differences. However, gender differences were not considered as a major variable that would significantly affect

  1. Report on Psychological Research into Eyewitness Testimony

    This can help to prompt accurate recall, and details that may otherwise have been forgotten. Similarly retelling the events in different orders may also provide other cues to memory strands. Going back through the memory and concentrating on the separate sections in various orders would require semantic processing.

  2. Psychology Coursework

    opposed to Group B, where recall took place in a different room. Therefore, the absence of retrieval cues within the initial context led to a reduction in word recall. Furthermore, the Mann Whitney U Test was carried out, enabled me to estimate a calculated value for U of 9.

  1. The aim of the study was to investigate the variation between memorizing words from ...

    and learning, the lists of words. The amount of time given to each participant for recalling the words was also identified as an extraneous variable. A third one was distractions and interruptions which may have affected the concentration of the participants in the two conditions.

  2. The Stroop Effect

    Stroop found that when the colour words were in different colours the participant would take longer to read the colour of the word this is because the automatic process of reading is completed faster then the controlled process of identifying the colour.

  1. Free essay

    Correlation between age and sleep

    This is considered as the best way to find out about people rather than judge attitudes from people behavior. 2.1. Participants The type of sample used for my study called an opportunity sample. I asked my close friends and flat mates if they would like to take part in the study.

  2. Testing the Stroop Effect on Students

    Theoretical Explanations The Stroop effect is hypothesized to result from several cognitive and physiological factors. Nealis (1973) and Wheeler (1977) proposed that the Stroop effect occurs as a result of the interference that occurs when two possible responses compete. In Stroop scenarios, participants are shown stimuli that may contain one or two sets of information to process.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work