• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Studies In The Cognitive Approach - Levels Of Processing (Craik and Lockhart 1972)

Extracts from this document...


Studies In The Cognitive Approach Levels Of Processing (Craik and Lockhart 1972) When given a list of words to learn, we can do one of three things to allow us to recall them on a later occasion. We can simply try to learn the words usual a visual method of just looking at the words. We can also think of words that rhyme with the word that has to be learnt, this is the auditory method. Finally we can associate the words with other words e.g. car and drive, this is a semantic way to remember things. Craik and Lockhart carried out the following study to investigate which form of memory gives the best recall. Three groups of people were given a list of words to learn. ...read more.


Its not the only theory for memory, Atkinson and Shiffron proposed the dual-process model. This study supports the assumption of cognition, that information is processed. It also seems a fair claim to say that the more you concentrate on something the more likely you are to remember it, because it has got more of your attention. The multi store model backs it up, the rehearsal loop can be seen processing more deeply. Miller proposed chunking as a way to help you remember things, this can also be seen as a way of deeper processing. Context Dependant Forgetting (Bouton et Al 1999) Forgetting may occur due to a number of different reasons such as trace decay and interference. But this study focuses on the failure to retrieve, not the failure to store. ...read more.


From this evidence Bouton et Al could then say that it's not that we forget things, but we don't recall them because the conditions aren't correct. Evaluation Most of the research carried out by Bouton et Al was done on non-human animals and the findings were generalised to humans. The results do show a lot about how the non-human animals thinking works, you can argue that generalising it to humans is not acceptable as we are not non-human animals. The research that was carried out was done in the area of memory and the non-human animal research was carried out in the area of conditioning, so it could be said that these are different cognitive skills, so the two experiments do not back each other up. There are other experiments also carried out based on this theory by many psychologists, which back this up. But its not the only theory for forgetting there is trace decay and also interference. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Craik and Lockhart believed that depth is a critical concept for levels of processing ...

    4 star(s)

    If anyone was still trying to do this after 1 1/4 hours then they were excluded from the experiment. He found out that most of the participants took six sorts to gain 95% consistency. At this point, they were given an unexpected free recall test.

  2. Psychology Retrospective Interference coursework

    6 Participant 27 6 Participant 8 10 Participant 18 3 Participant 28 7 Participant 9 9 Participant 19 5 Participant 29 9 Participant 10 8 Participant 20 4 Participant 30 6 Calculations of Mean, Mode, Median, and Standard Deviation Participant Scores of Resting condition Mean-score Mean-Score squared Participant Scores of

  1. Levels Of Processing

    Aim I am going to try and see if the words that are processed semantically really are remembered better than those that are processed phonetically or structurally in today's society or if this is not in fact true. Hypothesis Semantically processed words will be remembered better than structurally processed words.

  2. Investigating Levels Of Processing Using Images

    After answering the questions participants were presented with a list of 180 words and asked to tick any words they recognised from the words previously shown to them. Results showed that: * 17% of words in physical appearance * 37% in rhyming condition * 65% in meaning condition...were remembered.

  1. How levels of processing affects memory

    Hypothesis: The amount of words recalled from the categorised word list will be higher than the amount of words recalled from the random list; this is because organised words will be processed at a deeper level as the words will easily be associated with each other, whereas the non-organised word lists will be processed at a shallow level.

  2. To What Extent Is motivated Forgetting Produced By Failure Feedback?

    had taken part in, so then they know what the results will be used for. The information (being memorised) itself was obscure. The participants were likely not to know as its not based on common knowledge, in general. RESULTS Summary Table Table to show the descriptive statistics.

  1. Retrieval Induced Forgetting in Coherent Narrative Text.

    There were 18 words that were used in the examples of the study phase and 18 words that were new. Then there were 36 non words. The results showed that people were slower to identify rp- items as words than both rp+ and nrp items.

  2. Evaluate 3 Approaches to treating Mental Disorders: Psychodynamic, Biological and Behavioural Approach.

    that reinforcement and removal of tokens must be consistent and done constantly. All staff, be it day or night have to be fully involved, they also have to carry out their roles fully for such a programme to work. It only requires one staff member to fail at their task for the effectiveness of the programme to fail.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work