• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The aim of this experiment was to test the idea that effort and not levels of processing determine memory trace. Specifically to partially replicate the study by Tyler (1979) in which there were two groups each given a list of anagrams of the same words.

Extracts from this document...


CONTENTS Page no. 1. Abstract 1 2. Introduction 2 3. Method 4 4. Results 5 5. Discussion 6 6. References 7 7. Appendix 8 Abstract The aim of this experiment was to test the idea that effort and not levels of processing determine memory trace. Specifically to partially replicate the study by Tyler (1979) in which there were two groups each given a list of anagrams of the same words. However one list is harder to solve than the other, an unexpected recall test is then given. He found that the group with the harder anagrams recalled more when given a recall test than the group given the easy anagrams. So ten participants were selected, five were given a list of easy anagrams to solve and the other five were given the hard list of anagrams to solve. They were then given an unexpected recall test. The percentage of words recalled from the correctly solved anagrams was recorded. A Mann-Whitney U test was carried out which gave a result of U= 9 at a level of significance p< 0.05 but this value obtained was grater than the critical value U=4 so the result is non significant. The directional hypothesis that the participants solving the harder anagrams will show a significant difference in recall compared to those solving the easy anagrams is rejected and null hypothesis accepted. ...read more.


One group is given a hard set of anagrams to solve whilst the other group (control group) is given an easy set of anagrams to solve. The Independent variable is the amount of effort used to solve the anagrams and the Dependent variable is the percentage of words recalled from the anagrams solved. A pilot study was carried out and it was found that the words 'strawberry' and 'raspberry' were too hard to solve and so were eliminated from the anagrams list. The controlled variables are that the participants were the same age group so that the participants did not feel uneasy about being the oldest or youngest which could have affected their performance, were told to sit individually to avoid copying or any discussion about the task, the time was set at two minutes to solve the anagrams and two minutes to recall them and both the groups were given the same words as anagrams. Participants: It is an opportunity sample, 10 participants were found, 5 boys and 5 girls to avoid gender bias and they were also of mixed ethnicity to avoid any racial discrimination which were other control measures. The participants were not told what they were going to do in the experiment. ...read more.


Experimenter bias could have occurred as the experimenters were in the same room as the participants so could have had an effect on their performance. Some theoretical problems could be that the same anagrams as Tyler used in his experiment were not used so the results are not the same. The theory suggests that the more effort put in to solve the anagrams leads to better recall but 'can the amount of effort be measured?' Everyone does not use the same effort for a given task there are bound to be individual differences. Also time is another variable, as people tend to take longer on difficult tasks so is it that they spend more time so the task becomes easy? Or is it that more effort is used in that time? From this it can be seen that the amount of effort and length of time spent to solve the anagrams are confounding variables. The experiment lacks ecological validity as the results cannot be generalised to real life. If further research was to be done taking different age groups into consideration may show different results as their vocabulary maybe more developed so easier for them to solve anagrams. People from different backgrounds i.e. socio-economic status could show a different result as those from a higher socio-economic status may have better education and knowledge than someone from a lower social-economic status. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Craik and Lockhart believed that depth is a critical concept for levels of processing ...

    4 star(s)

    Distinctiveness Memory traces that are distinctive or unique in some way will be more memorable than memory traces that closely resemble others. Eysenck and Eysnck (1980) tested this theory by using nouns having irregular grapheme-phoneme correspondence (i.e. words not pronounced in line in line with punctuation rules, such as "comb" with its silent 'b').

  2. Marked by a teacher

    To retain recall, which is more beneficial, rote rehearsal or imagery?

    4 star(s)

    his research showed that by asking participants to form a mental image of pairs of unrelated nouns e.g. Dog and Bicycle. He said that if the two words were interacting in some way, then this would result in a significantly better recall, when they were merely constructed to memorize the words.


    Duplicates of the information will not be made as this will increase the chance of an unauthorised person viewing it. The experimenter will ensure that his conduct is professional in this study, following and checking all BPS ethical issues guidelines.

  2. Investigating the short-term memory

    Standard Deviation Scores 7 -1.5 2.25 7 -1.5 2.25 8 -0.5 0.25 8 -0.5 0.25 8 -0.5 0.25 9 +0.5 0.25 9 +0.5 0.25 9 +0.5 0.25 10 +1.5 2.25 10 +1.5 2.25 Total (Ed2) = 10.5 Ed2 ? (N-1)

  1. Images are recalled better than words

    The more often an experiment is repeated, with the same results obtained, the more confident we can be that the theory being tested is valid. The experimental method consists of standardised procedures and measures which allow it to be easily repeated.

  2. This study is based on the theory of cue dependent forgetting - more specifically, ...

    (eleven from one class and eight from the other class were in each group). Any psychological research must adhere to ethical guidelines set by The British Psychological Society (BPS). The consent of the participants was given and all were informed of their right to withdraw from the study at any

  1. Carry out an experiment on participants to investigate proactive interference on memory recall, using ...

    The answer sheet was kept out of sight. Participants were asked if they did psychology at the college or had any information on the nature of the research investigation. If any participants answered yes they would not of been wanted for the experiment. Word frequency was a possible extraneous variable.

  2. A Study to Investigate Whether Leading Questions have an Effect on Memory

    Even so, 70% of people asked about the barn claimed they saw it as they were misled by the use of the definite article. Leading questions are very important in matters of the law. If a person asks a leading question to someone just recently after an accident it could actually change the witnesses memory.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work