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The development of attachment can be described in 4 stages proposed by Schaffer and Emerson (1964).

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Psychology - Development of Attachments 2a) Outline the development of attachment The development of attachment can be described in 4 stages proposed by Schaffer and Emerson (1964). The first is the asocial stage (1st 6 weeks), and in this stage, any form of emotional behaviour isn't directed at anyone in particular, for example crying. The second stage is known as the indiscriminate attachments (6 weeks-7 months) where the infant is content with attention from different people. The following stage, specific attachments, is from 7 - 11 months and is where the infant not only forms attachments with others but also forms a particularly strong one to one individual. ...read more.


They compared American infants with infants from other cultures. Of Israeli infants, they found 62% of them shoed secure attachment, 33% anxious and resistant and 5% anxious and avoidant. Sagi et al also found that amongst Japanese infants, 68% formed secure attachments, 32% anxious and resistant and none of the infants were anxious and avoidant. Finally they looked attachments of German infants of which 40% were securely attached, 49% were anxious and resistant and 11% anxious and avoidant. Looking at the findings of all these infants, it is clear that there is a difference in attachments due to different styles of upbringing. ...read more.


c) Give two criticisms of this study One criticism of this study is the lack of validity by making cross-cultural comparisons. One of the main findings was that there was variation between cultures and this suggests that one culture consisting of the same practices as others is false. A second criticism is the measurement used in order to assess attachment. The strange situation measurement of attachment assumes that behaviour of children in all cultures is the same, however the rare time when Japanese children were separated from their mothers was an unusual experience and didn't have similar meaning to American children. Also that the reason children become anxious isn't entirely due to secure or insecure attachment. From this we can conclude that the Strange Situation is based more on cultural assumptions rather than actual attachment within cultures. ...read more.

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