• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Effect Chunking of Numbers has on Short-Term Memory Recall.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Effect Chunking of Numbers has on Short-Term Memory Recall. Introduction In this experiment, the cognitive approach was investigated, focusing on the study of memory within it. Chunking, a technique used to extend short-term memory capacity was studied. Miller (1956) suggested that we can hold 7(2 pieces of information in our short-term memory, which lasts for approximately 10-30 seconds. However, the amount of information stored in each unit or "chunk" varies. He proposed that STM would improve if long strings of information can be chunked into sections so that more can be stored. For example, the letters "m, e, m, o, r, y" can be chunked into the word "memory", reducing the number of chunks from six to one. Information would be also easier to retain when put into units that have more meaning to people, ex. FBI, BBC, CIA, etc. Bower (1969) studied the difference in recall of the same words in 1, 2 and 3 word phrases. Results showed that organised material was learnt 2-3 times quicker than disorganised. Disorganised material took longer because people need time to identify the relationships between the words, while this would be already presented to them in the organised material. This shows people have natural mechanisms to chunk information into units to increase their learning capacities and that chunking of information into an organised structure aids recall of information. ...read more.

Middle

Apparatus The experiment was carried out in different surroundings. Participants were seated. A list of numbers (see appendix 1) was read out for the test of recall in two conditions. Numbers in condition one was read one by one, with pauses in equal lengths between each letter. Letters in condition two were chunked into groups of three letters and read with pauses of equal lengths between each chunk. Procedure 1. 1. Participants were selected using the opportunistic method of sampling. 2. 2. A set of standardised instructions was read out to them (see appendix 1). 3. 3. Condition one: A list of numbers (not chunked) was read by the participants who had to try and remember as many of them as possible in the same order. 4. 4. Participants were given two minutes to try and recall as many numbers from the list-in the correct order. 5. Participants were given two minutes to try and recall as many letters from the list-in the correct order. 6. 7. Lastly, participants were debriefed (see appendix 2) Controls The same group of people were not tested in both conditions to eliminate the possibility of one condition affecting another. Students and adults, living in the same country were selected. ...read more.

Conclusion

However, the sample used in this experiment may be harder to repeat in different locations as it was from a very small target population. Participants have to be from Park lane college and surrounding area so it cannot be repeated in other countries It also lacked internal reliability, as memory is a very subjective thing. We cannot go inside someone's head to read their thoughts and look through their memories. Therefore, it cannot be certain that results showed exactly what participants remembered, as they may leave out some information deliberately. Improving reliability This could be improved by increasing the sample size. More participants could be used so results are more representative of the target population, ex. using a sample of 50. However, the process of collecting data with such a big sample becomes more difficult, as it would be hard to control them and make them do the experiment in absolute silence. Appendices Appendix 1: Standard instruction Appendix 2: Debriefing Appendix 2: Debriefing Thank you for participating in this experiment. You have just participated in an experiment investigating the effects chunking has on information recall of the short term memory You may cancel your results if you wish to. If you have any queries about this experiment or wish to gain further information about this study, you are welcome to ask me. Good bye. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Memory Process. This paper will describe a memory test using numbers, letters, and ...

    3 star(s)

    I think what helped me remember more was the information I read on chunking (Braingle, 1999-2012). The Role of Encoding The role of encoding is to acquire information. This is the preliminary structure of memory (Terry, 2009). In the memory test I took online; encoding was used as I recalled the letters from using the chunking technique.

  2. An experiment to investigate the effect of interference on memory recall

    OF WORDS RECALLED WITHOUT INTERFERENCE (Condition A) NO. OF WORDS RECALLED WITH INTERFERENCE (Condition B) ONE 6 5 TWO 4 3 THREE 2 7 FOUR 9 6 FIVE 5 4 SIX 5 5 SEVEN 7 5 EIGHT 5 8 NINE 6 3 TEN 3 5 Participant three's results more than trebled in condition B, whereas participant nine's results halved in condition B.

  1. The effect of chunking on memory recall in STM.

    If that information is then rehearsed it can then be entered into the long term memory. If rehearsal does not occur than the information is forgotten Long before Atkinson and Shiffrin developed the multi-store memory modal Ebbinghaus (1885) maintained that the short term memory is limited to six or seven pieces of information.

  2. Investigating the short-term memory

    The word selection will include words that sound alike and ones that mean the same also. As group 1 will be given the words only their recall results will be recorded straight away. The distraction will be music and given to group 2.

  1. effects of chunking and unchunking on short term memory

    This is because instead of learning nine digits there are only three chunks, BAF, DIL and TUN. Miller (1956) cited a study done by a Scottish philosopher, Hamilton (1788-1856) who wrote 'If you throw a handful of marbles on the floor, you will find it difficult to view at once more than six, or seven at most, without confusion.'

  2. The effect of primacy and recency on recall

    primacy and recency positions were recalled most consistently, and adverts in the middle of the block were recalled less consistently. The results of this experiment support the hypothesis that primacy and recency effect does affect recall of information in those positions in a list.

  1. A Study to Investigate Whether Leading Questions have an Effect on Memory

    This study is very helpful as it apply to eyewitness testimonies in a law court, if a witness is asked a leading question shortly after an accident, the leading question could actually change their memory. You were however not initially told the true purpose of this study so you are

  2. Will participants have a better recall of words when they are presented in an ...

    Mandler (1967) and Wittrock & Carter (1975) showed that recall is even more effective when the participants are asked to categorise the words for themselves. This could be an area for further study conducting the experiment with 3 Conditions: Condition 1 - those who memorise experimenter imposed categorised lists; Condition 2 - those who memorise random lists

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work