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The effect of primacy and recency on recall

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Contents Section Page beginning Abstract 2 Introduction. Includes: * Formulation of aims * Directional hypothesis * Null hypothesis. 3 Method. Includes: * Independent and dependent variables * Possible confounding variables * Ethical considerations * Participants * Equipment * Procedure 6 Results. Includes: * Inferential statistics 10 Discussion. Includes: * Explanation of results * Relation to previous studies * Limitations and modifications * Implications of the study and suggestions for future research 12 Appendix 1. Includes: * Standardised instructions 14 Appendix 2. Includes: * Raw data 15 Appendix 3. Includes: * Debrief 17 Appendix 4. Includes: * One set of 16 adverts. 18 References 19 Abstract The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect serial position had upon recall of magazine advertisements and to discover if primacy and recency both played a part in recall of adverts i.e. were the short term memory store (STM) and the long term memory store (LTM) both utilised when recalling magazine advertisements. The experimental/ alternative hypothesis was that products from adverts at the beginning (positions 1-4) and end of the block (positions 13-16) would be correctly recalled significantly more than adverts in the middle of the block (positions 5-12). The null hypothesis for this experiment stated that the serial position of adverts in a block of 16 will have no effect on recall of the products from these adverts. The independent variable in this experiment was the serial position of the advert and the dependent variable was the number of products from the adverts that participants recalled out of 16 adverts. Repeated measures design was used because it was the most valid design and it was the most appropriate due to the nature of the experiment i.e. all participants saw a beginning, middle and end of a series of adverts. Any other design would have hindered the validity and reliability of the experiment. Twenty participants were split into two groups and were asked to observe 16 magazine adverts. ...read more.

Middle

Deception was not used. * Participants were allowed the right to withdraw from the experiment at any time during the procedure. * Participants were not subjected to any humiliation by forcing them to recount what they have recalled aloud or in front of their classmates. * Participants wrote down what they recalled on a slip of paper, anonymously, thus there was no need for individuals' observations to be revealed to others. The results remained confidential. * Participants below the age of 16 were not allowed to take part in this experiment unless they had parental consent. * All the participants were debriefed afterwards and it was ensured that they all felt comfortable they had not been subjected to any humiliating or uncomfortable circumstances during the experiment. Participants: * 20 participants in the experiment. * The target population was teenagers and my target sample was students in the sixth form as they are 16+. I had to use sixth form students due to ethical limitations. * The sampling method used was opportunity sample because a class teacher had given permission for their AS level class to be used and therefore participants who were in the classroom at the time I had planned to carry out the experiment took part, with their consent. Equipment: * A set of standardised instructions (see appendix 1) * A set of 16 adverts taken from a variety of magazines (see appendix 4) * Paper for participants to write down what they recalled to keep the results anonymous. * Pens for the participants to write with. * A debrief (see appendix 3) Procedure: * The participants, who were already seated in the classroom, received the standardised instructions as a whole group. * The participants were asked if they were comfortable with the procedure and were told that they could leave the experiment any time if they wanted. * The class of 20 was split evenly into two groups randomly by selecting a slip of paper from a bag which said whether they were to be part of Group A or B. ...read more.

Conclusion

Participants Group A Group B Number of products recalled from primacy and recency (1-4 & 13-16). Condition A Number of products recalled from the middle (5-12). Condition B Difference Rank 1 6 5 1 4.5 2 6 3 3 15 3 7 5 2 11 4 6 5 1 4.5 5 6 5 1 4.5 6 7 5 2 11 7 5 6 -1 4.5 8 7 3 4 18 9 8 4 4 18 10 6 4 2 11 11 7 6 1 4.5 12 8 5 3 15 13 7 4 3 15 14 7 6 1 4.5 15 7 5 2 11 16 6 5 1 4.5 17 5 5 0 _ 18 7 6 1 4.5 19 8 6 2 11 20 8 4 4 18 Wilcoxon T score = 4.5 (calculated T score) because it is the lowest of all the ranked scores. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 4.5 5 6 7 8 2 2 2 2 2 9 10 11 12 13 3 3 3 14 15 16 4 4 4 17 18 19 Numbers in red indicate the rank number. Numbers in blue indicate the difference number. Appendix 3 Debrief: First of all, I would like to thank you for participating in this experiment. As you may have already guessed, the aim was to investigate the effect the position of an advert has upon your memory. The second part of the aim was to find out if adverts that were at the beginning and end of the block were better remembered than those in the middle. You might have realised that the adverts shown to you that were in the middle of the block of 16 were the most difficult to remember. Both group A and group B were shown the same adverts but in different orders. The information I have taken from this experiment will not be used in any other way, besides helping me interpret the findings of this investigation. ...read more.

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