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The Effects of ADHD

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Introduction

´╗┐THE EFFECT OF ADHD According to barkley 1981, hyperactivity is the developmental disorder of age appropriate attention span, restlessness and rule governed behaviour that develops in late infancy or early childhood before 6 years of age. It is pervasive in nature and is not accounted by neological, sensory, motor impairment and severe emotional disturbances. According to himshaw 1995, children with adhd have difficulties getting along with peers. Whalen 1985 emphasised that they know socially correct actions hypothetically but not in real life situations. According to barkley 1990, 15-30% have learning difficulties with maths, reading and spelling. The DSM IV lists three subtypes of adhd. Predominantly inattentive type, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type and the combined type; which the majority of children have. According to anna Richards 2003, those with the inattentive type also known as add tend to do a great deal of day dreaming. Add doesn?t include hyperactivity therefore, these children go unnoticed. ...read more.

Middle

Bradley 1938 suggested there are improvements with amphetamines but medication is not always effective. Psychotherapy/counselling is used to teach the child new skills, it also helps to decrease impulsivity and aggressive behaviour. Play therapy is sometimes used in young infants to measure impulsivity and also help improve the child’s social skills. Behaviour modification is by far the most effective treatment of adhd especially for the combined type as it targets desired behaviour to change. Parents are also advised in how to keep the home safe, and taught ways to respond to child’s behaviour, parenting classes. In schools, educational interventional programmes are designed to help child concentrate, teacher training, individual/group classes. With age the hyperactivity but the attention problems persists into adolescence and adulthood. By adulthood 1/3 to ½ are normal. According to Gadow 2001, add in adults are recognised and may develop other psychiatric disorders. Attachment According to the attachment cycle, the baby has needs both physical and psychological (fear or sense of separation). ...read more.

Conclusion

Emotional regulation begins during attunement via a pricess called affect mirroring. Briefly before other responses, the attuned adult reflects the emotions of the child with facial expressions and tone of voice, then responds appropriately. This process continue from co-regulation through verbal labelling and overt soothing strategies. A frightened baby will be hugged, verbal explanations. During socialisation, the carer have to educate or manage boundaries. I.e. if the child wants something he cant have, when the adult says no, this experienced as a scary breakdown in the relationship and the child is shamed. A competent adult will quickly sooth the child and fix the relationship reinforcing lesson learnt. During high arousal, the limbic system dominates the consciousness and the cortex shuts down. The cortex must be functioning before lesson can be learnt therefore by the child been soothed, emotional arousal is contained therefore regulation process can be learned. Sensitive attunement creates a pathway between cortex and the limbic system which us responsible for self regulation of effect. This pathway appears to less well developed in people who were severely abused or neglected before the age of 2-3. ...read more.

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