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The factors affecting cognitive and language development are opportunity , motivation, timing and the environment.

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Introduction

ESSAY 3 The factors affecting cognitive and language development are opportunity , motivation, timing and the environment. Children should have the opportunity to learn from when they are born, from their parent/carers or other siblings at home. Development is helped by parent/siblings talking to the child, playing, providing toys which the child can handle, investigate with to help with their imagination and concentration, giving children motivation and positive encouragement to explore their surroundings., developing new skills. Children with low-esteem should also be given special encouragement and motivation to learn these things. As children get older they should be encouraged to ask questions and be curious. Children imitate role models (parents) by coping speech and coping letters and words, helping them to know the difference between right and wrong, provided the environment sets a good example to them. The child's development can be hindered by the lack of opportunity to play and talk, if nobody communicates with them, they don't develop speech and language. ...read more.

Middle

Teachers giving direct teaching, one to one or in a group, sharing ideas and children learning new skills such as problem-solving. Teachers assess and observe the needs of each individual child and know the child's requirement for their development and to be able to identify the next step in the child's learning. Chomsky was critical of Skinner's theory has he said that there was more to language learning than imitation and reinforcements. He said that children learn the rules of language, not just specific responses as Skinner had said. Chomsky asserted that human beings are born biologically equipped to learn a language and proposed the theory of L A D. Piaget believed that children pass through stages in the development of understanding and that certain kinds of experiences are appropriate within the child's grasp at each stage. Piaget theory is a constructionist theory where the child doesn't become intelligent as it grows but by through interaction with the environment. ...read more.

Conclusion

He believed that children develop their language through imitating role models and reinforcement. Skinner found that if you praise or rewarded a child for its good behaviour the child would repeat the behaviour again (this is called positive reinforcement). He found this a more effective strategy than punishment which is called negative reinforcement. He called his theory 'operant conditioning'. Television can influence the child's development. It can stimulate curiosity, increase knowledge, enlarges vocabulary, it can encourages family discussions and conversation and it entertains. It can broaden the child's experience, bringing the wider world within their reach, although television can be harmful for children when the television is on continuously, it can make conversation difficult it would also reduce the opportunity for playing, reading and writing. Unsuitable programmes watched can encourage the child to behave in an anti-social way or even frighten the child. Bandura's theory emphasised on the children learning behaviour of observing and imitating adults/people. Including aggression, sharing, sex roles and altruism, this could be from the television and the environment around them. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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