• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The following essay will describe and explain Flash bulb memory using the knowledge of the cognitive approach. Flash bulb memory is the

Extracts from this document...


Use your knowledge of the cognitive approach in psychology to describe and explain one contemporary issue or debate. The following essay will describe and explain Flash bulb memory using the knowledge of the cognitive approach. Flash bulb memory is the memory that is a long-lasting and vivid memory of a specific event and the context in which it occurred. The event is important and emotionally significant (e.g. a national or personal event). The term 'flashbulb' refers to the fact it is photographic image of the event and setting has been encoded, as the memory is so detailed and accurate. This theory of flash bulb memory was supported by different researchers for example Cohen et al (1994) and Brown and Kulik (1977). ...read more.


Cohen et al also predicted that true flashbulb memories are more enduring so less vulnerable to forgetting than other types of memory. The resignation of the former Conservative party leader Mrs Thatcher was used to test people's flashbulb memory. Younger and older adults were questioned a fortnight of Mrs Thatcher's resignation and they were then questioned 11 months later. The findings revealed that 90% of younger participants and 42% of older adults had flashbulb memory. It is hard to know whether the high levels of memory shown by the participants were due to the distinctiveness and emotional impact of the event or to the fact that the resignation was rehearsed. ...read more.


Cue dependency is when information is stored in memory but cannot be retrieved because of inadequate retrieval cues. However, a dramatic event for example the assassination of President Kennedy in 1963 can be a cue to help one remember minor details at that time. Flashbulb memory can help us remember minor peripheral details such as what one was doing or wearing at the time of the event or how they were feeling and where they were. There is also a lot of experimental research to back up the theory of flashbulb memory such as Cohen et al (1994) and Brown and Kulik (1977). Along with the knowledge of cognitive approach e.g. Multi-store model and levels of processing. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays


    Another EV that could have affected the DV is the time of the day the experiment took place, as in the morning, participants tend to be more alert than in the afternoon. The control for this EV was that the experiment was conducted in the morning, when all participants are the most alert.

  2. In this experiment, the cognitive approach was investigated, focusing on the study of memory ...

    In a later study, Simon and Gilmartin (1973) guestimated that "grandmasters" could hold 50,000 chunks of chess pieces in their memories. Gobet (1998) developed on this research on chess expertise, investigating the number and size of the chunks that they can hold in their memories.

  1. How levels of processing affects memory

    The independent variables are the categorised and non-categorised word lists. The extraneous variables are background noise as this could affect the attention of the participants and therefore make it less likely for them to memorise any of the words, difficulty of the words-if they are too hard then there could

  2. everyday memory

    * Underwood (1957) - investigated why participants in his experiment were so poor at remembering lists of nonsense syllables just 1 day after learning them. - Participants who had previously learned many lists of nonsense syllables (during previous experiments) were more likely to forget current lists.

  1. Recall in Memory Using Mnemonics

    He associated each item with a visual image on a street in Moscow. When recalling the list he would take a mental 'walk' down this street and would recall each item as he passed it. Sherehevski used the Loci method as the experimental group did here - and the results

  2. Investigating the short-term memory

    This is a weakness as it is not possible to generalise the information collected and come to a conclusion. Another weakness of the research is that few mistakes were made with the similar sounding words of the list, it was predicted that many mistakes would be made here as was found in the Alan Baddeley study.

  1. 'Organisation in Memory'.

    Tulving (1968) describes this form of organisation (when the participant uses organisation to aid recall) subjective organisation, as opposed to experimenter organisation (organisation imposed by the experimenter). Bower et al.

  2. Memory's Impact

    Level of Significance A Mann-Whitney U test was used due to the following reasons: * The hypotheses predicted a difference between the two sets of data. * The data used were the number of words recalled which is interval data.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work