• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The idea of the interference theory of forgetting is that some learned material blocks the memory of other learned material.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Interference theory The idea of the interference theory of forgetting is that some learned material blocks the memory of other learned material. This theory of interference works both ways: * Proactive interference/inhibition - already learned information hampers person's ability to remember new material (Loftus, 1900.p.393). 1. Encounter interfering material 2. Encounter material to be remembered 3. Memory test for material to be remembered * Retroactive interference/inhibition - learning new information hampers memory of older material (Loftus, 1900.p.393). 1. Encounter material to be remembered 2. Encounter interfering material 3. Memory test for material to be remembered keppel and Underwood (1962) were interested in how Petersons practice trails affected those in the actual experiment. Whilst there was no evidence of forgetting on the first trial, there was some on the second and even more on the third. Although forgetting can occur on the first trial their findings showed that performance did not decline until the second trial, suggests that PI (the learning of the first list interferes with recall of the second list.) ...read more.

Middle

* When people have to learn, for example the response 'bell' to the stimulus 'woj', the word 'bell' is not actually learned in a laboratory, since it is already part of people's semantic memory. What is being learned is stored in a different type of LTM, called episodic memory. Semantic memory is much more stable and structured than episodic, and so is much more resistant to interference effects. Emotional Factors in forgetting According to Freud (1901), forgetting is a motivated process rather than a failure of learning or other processes. When memories are suppressed they can be remembered with effort and sufficient cues. Repressed memories, on the other hand, cannot be remembered by conventional strategies or increasing cues. When a memory is repressed, the person is not consciously aware of the memory. Levinger and Clark (1961) looked at the rotation of associates to negatively charged words, such as angry, fear etc compared with those for neutral words, such as window, cow etc. ...read more.

Conclusion

This may result it source confusion, in which the content and the source become dissociated. However, the fact that false memories can be created does not mean that all recovered memories are false. Flash back memories This is when the brain has recorded an event like the scene caught in the glare of a camera's flashlight. The vividness of flash back memories is no guarantee of their accuracy, and we only have flash back memories of events, which have personal relevance and consequences. Brown and Kulik's study showed that there is a special mechanism in the brain, which is triggered by events that are emotionally arousing, unexpected or extremely important. This results in the whole scene becoming 'printed' on the memory. Flash back memories are durable because they are frequent rehearsed and reconsidered after the event. However, the detail of people's memories and their vividness are not necessarily signs of their accuracy. Studies, which have failed to find evidence of flash back memories, may have concerned events, which lacked personal consequences for the participants. Jessica Thorne ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Carry out an experiment on participants to investigate proactive interference on memory recall, using ...

    Repeated measures were used to keep subject variables to a minimum and keep the skill levels constant in both conditions. With the type of experiment chosen, each participant needs complete both conditions 1 and 2, otherwise there would be no proactive interference, because condition 1 acts as the interference during the second condition.

  2. How interference affects memory recall

    group that doesn't listen to music will write down all the words they remember straight away and the people who will be listening to music will listen to music for 1.30 minutes then they will have 1 minute to write down the words they can recall.

  1. Psychology Retrospective Interference coursework

    the independent variables to examine the dependent variable, therefore, provides a high degree of certainty between the cause and effect. The design of this experiment is an independent measure as this is to avoid the order effects between the conditions.

  2. Find out if recall of words is better when recalled in the environmental context ...

    In the proposed study, similar results will hopefully be obtained by manipulating the type of chairs a person uses. Different chairs may affect the participant's memory because the environmental context will be different and body positioning will also be different.

  1. Cue-dependent forgetting theory by Tulving

    Variables The independent variable is the two conditions, which are, Group A, who eat chocolate at encoding and retrieval and Group B who eat chocolate only at the encoding of words.

  2. Investigating the effects of organisation on learning

    and interquartile range (4 for Conditions A and B) of the results. Figure 2 shows the mean and standard deviation of the number of words recalled by participants in the two conditions. It is evident that the distribution of results in Condition B is more widely spread than in Condition

  1. the affect interference has on the recall of words

    Jenkins and Dallenbach (1924) provided evidence to show information was lost due to interference as oppose to decay. In their study they had two participants who had to learn a list of syllables, one participant learnt theirs in the morning and the other at night right before going to sleep.

  2. An investigation to discover the effects of retroactive interference on memory recall.

    Interference is also a main reason of forgetting and generally is when our memory trace is disrupted or obscured by other information. Interference is broken down into two types. Firstly there is proactive interference which when what we already know interferes with what we are currently learning.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work