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The "Levels Of Processing Model" focuses on the inter related processes needed for memory - Discuss.

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The "Levels Of Processing Model" Focuses On The Inter Related Processes Needed For Memory. Discuss The Levels OF Processing (LOP) Model is an alternative to the Multi Store (MS) Model. It does appreciate the idea that both STM and LTM do exist however it does focus on the inter- related processes needed for memory. It looks at the way information is coded and how likely it is to be remembered depending on the type of coding. The LOP model was based on a study by Craik & Tulving (1875) who tested participants on remembering 4 different types of information. These were called "Levels of Processing. They claimed that the level information is processed at, accounts for how likely it is to be remembered. The 4 levels are as followed: * Shallowest e.g. ...read more.


This is the hardest level of processing. The person taking the test has to understand what kicked and tree means and put an appropriate word into the sentence. This uses deep semantic memory. According to Craik and Lockhart rehearsal was not as essential as LOP. They distinguished between two types of LOP - Simple Maintenance Rehearsal which simply holds information but does not necessarily lead to the transfer into LTM as information is just memorised, and Elaborative Rehearsal which involves some kind of analysis or evaluation of information. This type of rehearsal leads to LTM. This is why it was found that the more complex the stage of processing was (Semantic) the easier the sentence was to remember. E.g. the Deeper semantic test was remembered better than the Shallow because it required more analysis and they were placed in an order in which the words linked together and made sense. ...read more.


We can never be sure what type of memory participants are using to perform tasks because they are that of orientation. However the theory is not explanative of why deep inter related processing is effective and suggests that semantic processing is the only thing that affects LTM. This is very unlikely. Eyzenck criticised the theory for having a narrow view of encoding and proposed 4 general factors as an alternative, which affect learning. These were the nature of the task, the type of material to be remembered, and the knowledge of the subject and the nature of the test. It is also very difficult to measure the accuracy of this experiment because "depth" and elaboration" are such vague terms. It was said that deeply processed information would be remembered better but the depth of processing was how well it was remembered. This once again depends on the inter- related processes used. Natasha Dewji ...read more.

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