• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Multistore model of memory

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

THE MULTI STORE MODEL OF MEMORY ATKINSON AND SHIFFRIN - 1968 Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed this theory to explain the memory processes. They began by distinguishing three separate unitary stores: * STM - * LTM - * SENSORY STORE - this is information collected by our senses (ears, eyes, nose, mouth etc). The information remains only for a brief period by the sensory registers. Nonetheless, the capacity of the sensory store is very large and the method of encoding depends on the sensory store used, for example is it was the eyes, it would be visual codes. The SS is constantly receiving information but the majority is not paid attention to so stays only for a brief period. Info that is paid attention to then enters the STM. Information in the STM is in a fragile state - it decays quickly if not rehearsed or is displaced by incoming information (which is due to the fact STM has a limited capacity, 4 chunks). So, it has to be rehearsed In order to be transferred into the LTM, the individual has to undergo maintenance rehearsal. ...read more.

Middle

3. Modern technology, such as PET scans, have also show brain areas associated with memory. The prefrontal cortex seems to be active when participants were given a task involving their STM and their hippocampus seemed to be involved when the LTM was being engaged via a task. 4. Case studies have also been used to support the MSM. A case study, involving a man referred to as HR, suffered brain damage caused by the removal of his hippocampus. He couldn't form new long term memories but still remembered things from before surgery. This suggested the hippocampus acted as gateway through which new memories pass before entering the LTM VALIDITY The MSM has said to be lacking in validity, in some areas. For example, mainly college students were used between the ages of 18 and 21 for the experiments- it could be that there memories are different from older/younger individuals. Also, it is fair to say they would be above the average intelligence, and could have guessed the aim of the experiment. This might cause a change in their behaviour, known as participant reactivity/'demand characteristics, thus the results. ...read more.

Conclusion

The same goes for the LTM - research conducted on amnesia patients (Schachter) found that there are actually 4 long term memory stores: * Semantic Memory - memory about the world * Episodic Memory - memory concerning what you did yesterday, film you saw etc. * Procedural Memory - memory on how to ride a bike, read a book, swim etc * Perceptual Representation System - The MSM claims that the STM and LTM are completely separate stores, but research has shown STM relies on LTM, for example to be able to chuck successfully, you have to understand the meanings of the items to out that in memorable chunks, which involves the LTM. Ruchkin conducted a study where participants were given a word list containing real words and pseudo words. Their brain activity was monitored and if the STM was separate it should be said that the brain activity was equal when recalling the fake words and real words. However, it was found that brain activity increased when handling the real words, suggesting that more areas of the brain were involved. Ruchkin concluded that STM is part of LTM, where LTM is mainly used. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. SHORT TERM MEMORY

    Here when the distraction was added generally fewer words were recalled. This is due to the words not being rehearsed enough causing a shorter short-term memory eventually resulting in the forgetting of the words. Again the flip side to this is that if the information is rehearsed enough then it will be stored and therefore easily recalled.

  2. Investigating the short-term memory

    Participant's Name: Participant's Signature: Date: Investigator's Name: Investigator's Signature: APPENDIX 4 Word List for group 1&2 The word chosen include ones with the similar meaning and similar sound. This was essential as the coding for words was what was being investigated, also stated in the hypothesis it was predicted that

  1. How Valid is the Modal Model of Memory?

    These results have been put forward as evidence of the existence of a STM. The loss of information has been explained in terms of the decay of the STM trace due to the presence of the distracter task (Peterson & Peterson, 1959, cited in Gross, 1992).

  2. How Minority views afects Majority - Conformity

    are shown answers of majority regarding the estimates of sweets in a jar compared to when the minority are not shown answers from the majority. Method - Design The experimental design that will be carried out is a field experiment and will be carried out in the natural settings of the participants.

  1. Investigation into the relationship between an individuals precieved ugliness, harmfullness and an individuals fear ...

    giving a rating of 1 for harmful means that the animal is perceived to be harmless. Where as if a rating of 5 was given this would mean that the animal is perceived as being very harmful. When the participants had finished filling in all of the response sheets

  2. Investigating the serial position effect in memory

    This enhanced the primacy effect whilst not affecting the recency effect. The two experiments each change the primacy and recency effect individually causing no change to the opposite effect. This suggests that STM and LTM are separate stores of memory.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work