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The Psychological Development of a Client.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Kirsten Goldsworthy. 2-May-02. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF A CLIENT. From society's standpoint, one of the most important indexes of morality is the extent of which a person is able to resist pressures to violate social norms. A person who is able to resist the temptation in the absence of external surveillance not only has learned a moral rule but is internally motivated to abide by that rule. How do children acquire moral standards and what motivates them to obey these learned codes of conduct? There are several theories on moral development which have attempted to answer these questions. Freud's theory of moral development is very closely linked to aspects of his psychoanalytic theory. Freud's theory was quite controversial and appeared to be mainly concerned with sex. However, looking at some of his work and theory's there are perhaps some areas we may be able to relate to or even understand. Darwin influenced Freud. He produced the first ever-psychological theory on personality, how we develop and treatment for mental health illnesses. Freud's Psychoanalytic approach is quite complex. However, its basic rationale is that all human behaviour is a result of a basic driving force- instinct and survival. The driving force has to be sexual, the need to reproduce. Freud believed that there are three parts to a persons mind. This is the conscious mind, preconscious mind and the unconscious mind. The conscious part of the mind is what is going on immediately. The preconscious part of the mind is when a particular event or reminder of a certain time that something has happened, the memory will become clear again. The unconscious part of the mind is buried. It apparently gives us our drives for sex and our drives for life and death. This can be explained in terms of the Greek Gods. The Libido (Eros) is the drive for sex and life as it represents life and love. ...read more.

Middle

Stage one is known as the Punishment and obedience orientation. This is where the child obeys authorities to avoid punishment, but may not consider the act wrong if he goes undetected. Stage two is known as the Instrumental relativist orientation. A person at this second stage conforms to rules in order to gain rewards or satisfy personal objectives. "you scratch my back and I will scratch yours" appears to be the guiding philosophy in this stage. In Level two, the Conventional Morality Kohlberg's term for the third an fourth stages of moral reasoning are based upon a desire to gain approval or to uphold the laws that maintain social order. Stage three is known as the Interpersonal concordance. "Good boy- Nice Girl" stage. Moral behaviour that pleases, helps or is approved by others. People are often judged by their intentions and being nice is important and valued. Stage four is known as the "Law and Order" orientation. At this stage the individual considers the perspectives of the generalised other, the will of society as reflected in the law. The reason for conforming is not for fear of punishment, but a belief that rules and laws maintain a social order. Level three is the Post conventional or Principled Morality. Kohlberg's term for the fifth and sixth stages are based upon social contracts and democratic law or principles of ethics and justice. Stage five is known as the Social contract orientation. Here the individuals view the law as instruments for expressing the will of the majority and furthering human welfare. Right action tends to be defined in terms of general individual rights and standards that have been critically examined and agreed upon by the whole of society. Outside the legal realm, free agreement, and contract, is the binding element of obligation. Stage six is known as the Morality of individuals principles of Conscience. At this height of moral stages the individual is now aware of the difference between right or wrong on the basis of the chosen ethical principles of his or her own conscience. ...read more.

Conclusion

Thus being that societies morals are being destroyed through the destruction of societies behaviour. He suggests that nutrition is the main cause of behavioural problems and can affect behaviour in many ways. These include food additives, food allergy, vitamin and mineral imbalances and essential fatty acid deficiencies. Peter Bennett states that prescribed drugs, street drugs and smoking are all considered to have adverse physiological effects, even if there is some psychological effects as well. Recent addiction research had been focusing on how nutritional conditions can cause or contribute to drug abuse. The conclusion had shown that there were certain nutrients and food that was found in addicts and criminals. However, psychological and environmental considerations had to be taken into account. In my opinion this is a very thoughtful and perhaps important consideration. There could be a number of factors that tie in with morality and anti-social behaviour such as drug misuse. In conclusion, morals are usually based on nothing more than common sense. Promiscuity has been discouraged in most cultures because of the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, infidelity because it breaks up the very core of the family. Murder is not tolerated because it is the very antithesis of survival. Moral codes are as old as man himself and have been developed in every activity in which people interact. It has become evident that trying to understand moral reasoning is very complex. There are so many different theories and different ways of 'measuring' moral development, and so many different stages. We have to ask if there really are stages to moral development, and if behaviour such as drug taking or crime is because of lack of moral development. Over time , men have learned that in order for a group to survive, the individuals within it have to agree upon codes of conduct, or what is considered as proper. In it's essence, then, a moral code is no more and no less than simply a series of agreements to which a person agrees. Word Count: 3499. ...read more.

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