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AS and A Level: The Psychology of Individual Differences

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Five big ideas for essays on individual differences

  1. 1 Put the research in your essay in historical context. Each approach developed as a reaction against what had gone before and in response to contemporary events. Referring to publication dates will help you to understand why such a theory developed when it did.
  2. 2 Understand the dominant paradigms. The cognitive approach is dominant in modern mainstream psychology and the cognitive-behavioural approach is dominant in therapy. The biological approach is dominant in medicine and psychiatry. Other approaches are practiced but receive less funding. Anti-psychiatry exists on the fringes but has influenced service user focused models in mental health practice. Modern psychologists tend to take an eclectic approach in working with individuals.
  3. 3 Consider claims to/against science. Assess the extent to which explanations are supported by scientific research or not. Evaluate the techniques used by psychologists to operationalize mental processes in their research. For example, behavioural responses and psychobiological measures don’t tell us about the nature of thoughts and we can never rely fully on self-report measures.
  4. 4 Consider free will/determinism. The more scientific the approach, the more determinist it tends to be, because science is the search for causes. Seeking ultimate causes of behaviour or chains of causal links is incompatible with the idea that humans have free will and complete moral responsibility.
  5. 5 Consider reductionism-holism. Reductionism is the principle that one should always seek to understand at the most basic, most fundamental level: e.g reducing our understanding of depression to an explanation about the balance of chemicals in the brain rather than looking at the whole person in their social context. As a rule, the more scientific the approach, the more reductionist it is. Those that reject scientific principles and practice often do so because of this reductionism – they want to see and help the whole person.

Five psychological perspectives to look out for in individual differences research

  1. 1 Psychodynamic – The psychodynamic approach rests on the assumption that the psyche is formed and influenced by early childhood experiences. The psyche has three dynamic parts: the id, ego and superego. The ego has to balance the demands of the selfish id and the moral superego, so it experiences conflict if either one is too dominant. It protects itself through abnormal behaviours that disguise this unconscious conflict These are called defence mechanisms. Bringing this conflict into conscious awareness can resolve abnormality.
  2. 2 Behaviourist – The behaviourist approach developed as a reaction to the unfalsifiable psychodynamic approach. Behaviourists emphasise the scientific, experimental manipulation and measurement of observable behaviour – to them, any mental process is inside the ‘black box’ of the mind - which cannot be studied scientifically and so is of no interest. Behaviourism rests on the assumption that all behaviour is learned through interaction with the environment – at birth, the child is a ‘blank slate’. Abnormal behaviours are learned and so can be unlearned.
  3. 3 Cognitive – The cognitive approach developed as a reaction to the behaviourist approach’s ignorance of mental processes. It rests on the analogy that the brain is like a computer – it processes information. So personality or psychopathology can be explained in terms of differences or faults in perception and cognition. Adjusting these processes can rectify any problems.
  4. 4 Humanistic – The humanist approach developed out of the philosophical approach of phenomenology. Humanistic psychologists do not try to objectively measure people, they aim to understand their subjective experiences. They do not search for determinist causes of behaviour but emphasise free will: they focus on the whole person and aim to help achieve personal development.
  5. 5 Anti-psychiatry – The anti-psychiatry movement developed in reaction to the increasing medicalization of mental health in the 1960s. Anti-psychiatrists maintain that mental illness is a myth and that abnormal behaviours are sane responses to a repressive society. It aims to empower the individual – rejecting labels such as ‘patient’.

Five biological perspectives to look out for in individual differences research

  1. 1 Genetic – Seeks to establish the extent to which traits are due to inheritance or environment. Researchers study concordance rates (if one person has a trait or disorder, what is the percentage probability that the relative also has it?) using twin, adoption and family studies.
  2. 2 Evolutionary – seeks to establish continuity between human and other species and explain human diversity in terms of ecological adaptation, maximising survival and reproduction. Look out for studies on primate or other mammal behaviour that are used to draw conclusions about causes of human behaviour.
  3. 3 Neuroanatomical – seeks to understand the relationship between brain structure and behaviour. Often uses case studies of people with damage to certain parts of the brain or post-mortems of people with abnormal behaviours.
  4. 4 Psychobiological – related to the previous approach, but with more of a focus on measuring brain activity using a variety of scanning techniques whilst the individual is engaged in a specific task or activity. Often used for comparisons – eg. The brain activity of diagnosed psychopaths compared against the brain activity of ‘normal’ participants.
  5. 5 Biochemical – related to the previous approach, but with more of a focus on assessing the levels and activity of specified neurotransmitters or hormones and drawing correlations with specific mental states or behaviours e.g. stress.

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  1. Definitions of Attitudes

    Attitudes can be formed from simple evaluation. It is the ability to assess an object, idea, or person and form opinions hence cultivating an attitude towards them. If an individual is about to taste caviar for the first time, they may be able to assess the colour, scent, and shape and read the ingredients on the container, to form an opinion and attitude. The evaluation process allows them to decide if the individual thinks it may be appealing or distasteful to them.

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  2. Psychology Case Study on Dennis Nilsen

    2 Anal Stage, most fascination is involved with the Anus. 3 Phallic Stage, young begin to desire their parents (op sex), 4 Latency Stage, Girls and Boys are mostly separated, 5 Genital Stage, Stage where enjoyment is in the genitals, Conflict at certain stages can arise through childhood experiences. 2.) Treatment Implications The three treatments are Dream Analysis, Hypnosis and Therapy The idea of all these treatments is to access repressed memories, ideas or conflicts and to encourage them to face up to whatever emerges from the sub conscience. Medical 1.)

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  3. Psychological Abnormality

    Agovi Another factor is when psychological states may be distressing to others. For example a person who tries to assassinate the Prime Minister might not experience any personal distress but however the fact that such a person is a threat to others establish a failure to function adequately. If such is the case, then when can we say that one is being abnormal or merely being non-conformist? Such a case is the incident on the 11th of September 2001 in New York in which some people bombed the World Trade Centre by flying planes into them.

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  4. In this essay the biological, cognitive and the psychodynamic approach will be explored and compared on how they explain human behaviour.

    The brain can be examined through many methods such as CAT scans, X-rays etc. (Collin, et al., 2012). Gottesman looked at twin?s studies and the likelihood of the other twin developing schizophrenia. Evaluation of twin studies revealed 48% concordance for monozygotic (MZ; identical) twins and only 17% for dizygotic (DZ; fraternal) twins. Gottesman also reported that the concordance rate for identical twins raised apart was very similar to that for identical twins raised together?suggesting that the high concordance rate for identical twins is not due to being treated in a similar way at home (Gottesman & Shield, 1976).

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  5. Discuss factors influencing attitudes to food and eating behaviour

    Another factor that has been researched into attitudes for eating behaviour is mood. Psychologists have found that individual?s mood can be a strong predictor of their eating behaviour, and in particular ? stress. Psychologists such as Spillman (1990) have found that stress can increase food intake, however Popper et al found that stress decreases food intake. Support for Birch?s theory of Exposure affecting eating behaviour comes from research carried out by Birch and Marlin (1982) who carried out research on adolescents (2 year olds)

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  6. Discuss the role of genes and hormones in Gender Identity Development

    The biological approach believes that the external genitals of an individual play a role in the development of gender by influencing how they identify themselves, for example a female with female genitals will be more caring due to the fact she identifies with the fact she can carry children. According to the biological approach to gender development, hormones can also play a role in gender development as during the early stages of prenatal development hormones are produced, and according to this approach these hormones affect gender.

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  7. Discuss evolutionary explanations of gender

    From these processes, evolutionary psychologists developed the hunting hypothesis. The hunting hypothesis states that the men who were hunters during the evolutionary stages and were successful due to their strength, aggression and spatial skills were able to survive and pass on their genes. The weaker men who were less aggressive and had less spatial skills were unable to survive and reproduce meaning these genes died off thus resulting in men today being more aggressive, strong and having good spatial skills.

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  8. Psychopathology, Theories and Treatment Revision notes (Psychology AS)

    It has been suggested that this may lead to disproportionate numbers of people from certain groups being diagnosed as "abnormal." Biological approach to abnormality BING * Brain Injury * Infection * Neurotransmitters * Genetics Brain * Phineas Gage * Pole in his head * Before ? best worker, lovely man * After ? aggressive, impulsive, different person * Don?t know if it was frontal cortex * Korsakoff Syndrome - Caused by heavy drink and drugs and effects the brain Infection * Cause one illness that could lead to a secondary illness that has psychological symptoms * Influenza virus was linked

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  9. Explanations of Independent Behaviour

    Whereas people with external locus of control believe what happens to them is controlled by external factors, such as luck or fate, and they are relatively helpless in difficult or stressful situations; making them easier to conform and obey. Locus of control has many supporting studies. For instance, Avtgis carried out a meta-analysis which looked at locus of control. They found that those who scored higher on external locus of control were more easily persuaded.

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  10. Age is a factor that can affect eyewitness testimony.

    A strength of the study is that it was done in a lab which means there is high control over the variables which means the investigator can manipulate the variables. Therefore, we can infer the cause and effect and makes the study more reliable. Research supporting this was done by Yarmey et al. they had young and elderly adults watch a filmed event and were asked questions about the event.

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  11. Psychological Explanations for Scizophrenia

    Perhaps recent events that cause stress are a more important factor rather than childhood. Lastly, the approach focuses on the unconscious which is difficult to falsify which means we cannot be completely certain that the unconscious plays a role in the development of schizophrenia. Because there is no evidence that proves that this is how schizophrenia occurs we cannot rely upon this explanation. Therefore other explanations provide more convincing explanations. An alternative explanation is family models. Recent research has centred on the concept of expressed emotion (EE). Families that are hostile, show criticism and are over concerned place vulnerability to schizophrenia because they class as a high expressed emotion family.

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  12. Discuss Cross-Cultural Studies into Perception.

    But, a problem with Turnball?s research is that it was a case study. We cannot then generalise one person?s findings to the wider population. However, further research on a larger sample base was conducted by Hudson who also found that perception was a learnt process. Hudson looked at Bantu, European and Indian children and were shown a drawing of a man with a spear, antelope and an elephant. They found that all children started primary school struggled with depth cues. However, by the end of primary school all European children were able to correctly understand depth cues.

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  13. Discuss the influences of childhood on adult relationships

    However this theory can be criticised for being reductionist as it doesn?t factor social or cultural influences in later life that may lead to adapting and improving on any childhood deficits. The theory states that our early experiences set in stone our later ones, but this is not the case as it?s far more complex than this, shaped by more than just attachment styles. As we have free will, this allows us to break away from early experiences through conscious thought, allowing us to address the problem areas in our lives.

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  14. Discuss issues associated with the classification and/or diagnosis of schizophrenia

    only found a small positive correlation between the different assesors.This is evidence of low reliability when using the DSM to diagnose schizophrenia ,however the test-retest reliability studies have shown more positive results which means that there is some sort of reliability with the DSM. Another issue surronding the diagnosis and classfication of schizophrenia is the cultral differences in diagnosis e.g A research study by Copeland et al (1971) compared 134 US psychiatrists and 194 British psychiatrists in their diagnosis of a patient, and found that 69% of the US psychiatrists diagnosed schizophrenia compared with only 2% of the British psychiatrists.

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  15. Explanations of Successful and Failed Dieting

    Another explanation is the role of denial. Wegner suggests that attempts to supress thoughts about eating and food can paradoxically make those thoughts more prominent in a person?s mind. This has been referred to as the ?theory of ironic processes of mental control?. When food is denied during dieting and becomes forbidden, this is translated into increased eating due to the fact that this occupies their thoughts more. Lastly, Neural/ Hormonal factors can explain failed dieting. Recent research has revealed individual differences in the amount of neurological activity associated with exposure to desirable foods, which might predict subsequent eating behaviours (Beaver et al).

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  16. Discuss the role of one or more factors that influence attitudes to food

    Thus, children learn about eating not only through their own experiences, but also by watching others. As Duncker?s study shows, one way in which children acquire their eating behavior and attitude towards food is by observing the behavior of their parents. However, peer influences become more significant when children reach school age. Lowe et al (98) found that admired peers can be instrumental in increasing children?s intake of fruit and vegetables. Classical conditioning and reinforcement is another factor that influences attitudes to food and eating behaviour.

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  17. Accurately describe the four definitions of abnormality we have covered, include two weaknesses and two strengths for each definition.

    Both of the two examples show us how practical and beneficial this definition can be; but if you look at the examples in a different light, it is clear to see the flaws of using statistical infrequency to establish abnormal behaviour. It would be very desirable to have an unusually high I.Q, like Zuleika Yusoff who sat her A level maths at the age of five in 1999 (Gross, McIlveen, & Coolican, 2000, P86); a person with this may be statistically abnormal, but would not be a call for concern or remedy, in fact they would probably be encouraged.

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    The second possible cause looks at the link between biology and mental illness, where a physical illness such as malaria if untreated would eventually cause mental health issues. We know the brain has no immune response and relies on the body to provide a barrier against infection (bacteria or viruses), however if this barrier is breached, it could result in serious brain damage. This was recognized in explaining ?General Paresis? where syphilis left untreated over a period of time would eventually damage the brain resulting in mental illness.

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  19. Discuss psychological therapies for obsessive compulsive disorder

    Research has supported the effectiveness of ERP in treating patients with OCD. For example, an investigation by Albucher et al (1998) showed that between 60 and 90% of patients who suffered with OCD improved considerably using ERP. Furthermore Foa and Kozak (1996) support Albucher?s claims, as their research demonstrated that ERP alone was as effective as ERP with medication after a two year follow up. Empirical evidence such as this enables the ERP therapy to be generalized as a universally effective treatment for OCD patients. A criticism in the use of psychological therapies for treating OCD is that its reductionist.

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  20. Discuss the behavioural approach to explaining psychological abnormality. (12 marks) Updated

    This is a social learning theory explanation. Behaviourists believe the mind is an unnecessary concept and so therefore there is no such thing as mental disorders or mental illnesses, only abnormal behaviours. Also if abnormal behaviours are learned, then they can be unlearned and it is this idea that underpins behavioural treatments. Behaviourism is very good at explaining disorders that do have an environmental component, for instance a lot of phobias are learned through experience.

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  21. Case Study for psychology. The boy who couldnt stop washing

    He tried to keep his obsessive compulsive symptoms under control during the time he was at school. However, over months, his resistance weakened and his OCD became so severe that his time ? consuming rituals took over his life. Charles was forced to leave school because he was spending so much of the day washing. His washing ritual always followed the same deliberate pattern. He would hold the soap under the water spray for one minute in his right hand and then out of the water for one minute in his left hand, He would repeat this for at least one hour.

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  22. Level 2 Counselling skills. Theories -CBT, Psychodynamic and Person Centred.

    ? Id - This is the impulsive (and unconscious) part of our personality, and is present at birth. It demands immediate satisfaction, which can be referred to as the pleasure principle. The main aim of the id is to gain pleasure and gratification at any cost. ? Ego - This is the conscious, rational part of the mind that develops around the age of two years. Its function is to work out realistic ways of balancing the demands of the id in a socially acceptable way. It is governed by the reality principle.

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  23. Discuss the influence of culture on romantic relationships

    In societies with reduced mobility (e.g. India) arranged marriages make good sense and seem to work well. Females from professional and non professional backgrounds were found to be happy with both love and arranged marriages as long as their parent?s approved, emphasising the importance of family Batabyal (1992). Divorce rates are low and half of the spouses in arranged marriages fell in love with each other as Epstein found out in 2005. There was no difference in marital satisfaction when compared to individuals in non-arranged marriage in the US with arranged marriages in India. Myers et al studied both love marriages in the US and arranged marriages in India.

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  24. Discuss issues of bias in diagnostic systems

    This can lead to mis-diagnosis if the symptoms are wrong. This approach has encouraged psychiatrists using the system to take a more holistic approach to understanding the person who has presented with some problems. This reflects a widely held belief among mental health practitioners today that the origin of each person?s problems should be analysed according to a biological and psychological social framework. It seems important to ask whether the systems used are in fact reliable. Mary Seeman (2007) reviewed examining evidence relating to the reliability of diagnosis over time.

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  25. How can we explain abnormality?

    There are four types of medical explanations including genetics, neurotransmitters, infection and brain injury. Using the statistical approach which says that if 90% of people act one way, that the other 10% are abnormal. However what one culture might see as abnormal, another culture may not which causes problems in trying to diagnose psychopathology. Things that might affect groups ?normality? could range from religious, gender, ethnic, or generational groups. Jahoda proposed 6 criteria for ideal mental health including self-actualisation and accurate perception of reality.

    • Word count: 1075

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