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The purpose of this essay will be to describe and compare the following perspectives of psychology: Psychoanalytical, Humanistic, Cognitive and Behavioural

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Introduction

David Wilson The Perspectives of Psychology Assignment 1 The purpose of this essay will be to describe and compare the following perspectives of psychology: Psychoanalytical, Humanistic, Cognitive and Behavioural within our society. This will then allow us to have a greater understanding of the theories of human behaviour, by analysing their similarities and opposing views of their approaches, using the correct terminology. And then moving on to compare three of the theoretical theories. While a few different schools of thought dominated the early years of psychology, the number of topics studied by psychologists has grown dramatically since the 1960?s.Today few psychologists identify to a particular school of thought. While you may find some pure behaviourists or psychoanalysts, the majority of psychologists instead think of their work according to their speciality area and perspective. Every area in psychology can be looked at in a number of different ways as follows. (Elliott A, 2002, psychoanalytical theory) The Psychoanalytical Theory was founded by Austrian Neurologist Sigmund Freud (1916-1917) He believed that people could be cured by making conscious their unconscious thoughts and motives thus gaining insight. This view of psychology and human behaviour emphasizes the role of the unconscious mind, early childhood experiences, and interpersonal relationships to explain human behaviour and to treat people suffering from mental illness.( Jeffrey,N(2009) ...read more.

Middle

are an essential part of this perspective( self counselling and basic goodness and respect of humankind ,and it favours nurture over nature, which is all about empathy.( Elliott,A (2007) A Psychological Theory) A further perspective is the Cognitive approach, which was developed during the 1960?s this was a new psychological approach which began to take hold at this time. It focuses on the mental processes such as memory, thinking, problem solving, language and decision- making, very much like a computer would operate. Influenced by psychologists such Neisser (1967) and Jean Piaget( Stages of cognitive development in children) and Albert Bandura, this perspective has grown tremendously in recent times. They thought you had to have an understanding of people; we need to know what goes on inside their heads. This approach came about due to the dissatisfaction with the behavioural approach which focused on the visible behaviour without understanding the internal process and Stages of cognitive development in children and the links made with computers(This thinking can be traced right back to Plato and Gottfried Leibnitz from psychology?s beginnings with philosophy). The final perspective we are looking at is the Behavioural approach. This concentrates on the learned behaviours, While Behaviourism dominated psychology early in the twentieth century , it began to lose its hold during the ...read more.

Conclusion

they all share some major common ideas and this is to define mans mentality and explain mental illness.(grosser 2010 the science of mind and behaviour) Psychoanalytical is closely linked cognitive with Piaget?s work on children?s development being very akin to the stage theory that both Freud?s looked at in childhood experiences and they both took a scientific view.(www.trinity.edu) The main differences and similarities with Behavioural and psychoanalytical theory?s are both believe that current behaviour is determined by past experiences, but where psychoanalytical looks at mental processes , behavioural looks at the subject behaviour and doesn?t care about mental processes(www.simplypsychology.org) Humanistic shares a link with physcoanalytical as both believe that we all have needs and desires, Humanistic also has a link to behavioural as they both believe that human interests can be infinite. Each theory has a stage approach to it; including It just that each has a different approach to it. They see Depression, phobias and eating disorders to explain our development. Each theory in its own focuses on the human mind and its reaction to its environment, The general idea of psychology is to study the mind and determine the best way to fix problems that cannot be solved with traditional methods .(Behaviourism) It is just that each has a different approach to it. ...read more.

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