• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Short term memory.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Psychology Homework Question 1 With temporal duration the material held in the STM is relatively short-lived. Baddely and Hitch (1974) suggested that information may survive in the phonological loop for two seconds. Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) believed it may last a little longer, although only a matter of a few seconds. Many psychologists believe that memories in the LTM are permanent, and the work of Penfield (1969), and studies of memories recovered through hypnosis would appear to support this idea. However this evidence was shown to be unreliable when examined more critically. Even so it is apparent that LTM is durable and that some memories last a lifetime. With storage capacity Miller (1956) proposed that STM was capable of storing 7 plus or minus 2 items or chunks of information at a time. Baddely and Hitch (1974) suggested that the Phonological Loop is capable of holding the amount of material that can be remembered within a two second time span: that capacity is time limited, rather than space limited as suggested by Miller.The capacity of LTM is generally considered to be infinite. ...read more.

Middle

Question 2 A procedure that has been used to investigate the capacity of short term memory was Glanzer and Cunitz (1966) experiment. This was where subject's were gathered and each subject was presented with 15 words. They had been previously told that they would have to try to remember as many letters as they could. They gave 30 seconds for some of the group to learn the letters, and found that this was where the group had recalled the majority they had done during the test. Where when the subjects were given 10 seconds of learning time, there was a poorer recall of later items. The results for the 30 seconds of learning time showed a rough approximation of the capacity of the short term memory, and helped approximate that short term memory has a maximum capacity of around 7 � 2 items. Question 3 Working Memory consists of numerous features, but mainly is that it describes short term memory, telling us what the information means, by processing it. ...read more.

Conclusion

The articulatory rehearsal process is the part of working memory that you would use when attempting to remember a telephone number that someone has given you whilst you hunt for a pen and paper to write it down. Information in the phonological loop is held in a temporal and serial fashion (i.e., the information that goes in first comes out first). * the visuo-spatial sketchpad The visuospatial sketch pad is where a limited amount of spatially and/or visually represented information is maintained and manipulated. It is similar in some ways to the articulatory loop, for example, it has the ability to rehearse information. It can loosely be thought of as an 'inner eye'. * the central executive The central executive can be seen as a supervisory system. It allocates attention to incoming stimuli and directs the operation of the other components of working memory. In some ways it is the most important component of working memory, since it is used when dealing with any task of a cognitively demanding nature. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Are memories permanent and unalterable?

    4 star(s)

    Loftus claimed that the reason for this was the way in which memory may be altered by subsequent information, clearly supporting the importance of retroactive interference. Alternation can also be observed by the reconstructive 'nature' of memory. Giving a big role on interpretation, Bartlett (1932)

  2. SHORT TERM MEMORY

    This study may also prove to be conflicting evidence to one of the study's mentioned or discussed above. AIM The aim of this investigation is to investigate the short-term memory, and how it long it can store an information In this study the experimenter will look at how information is encoded in our short-term memory.

  1. Psychology Retrospective Interference coursework

    They could also teach different materials by using different approaches so the students will be able to distinguish the materials through different approaches learnt and they will not be confused. People can implement this concept into learning in everyday life to prevent them from forgetting in LTM.

  2. Investigating the short-term memory

    Both groups will have 1 minute to recall any words. That means it calculates the group 1 experiment will take up to 2minutes and group2's up to 3 minutes. The music provided will be from a radio and a stopwatch will be needed also to time the participants accurately.

  1. effects of chunking and unchunking on short term memory

    This test is also used when they hypothesis predicts a difference between two sets of data. The data collected is ordinal and thus could be ranked. The critical value of T at p=0.05 (one tailed) for N=21 is 68 (95% due to IV)

  2. How Minority views afects Majority - Conformity

    The dependant variable is whether participants conform to the majority or not. The experiment will have 2 conditions and experimenter will be using an independent measures design. This is so that the hypothesis can be concluded by comparing results from both conditions.

  1. Investigating the effects of organisation on learning

    neither very common nor uncommon in their usage in everyday life, nor are they stereotypical of their respective categories. What is meant by this is if the question was asked name a sport, it is unlikely that the answer swimming would be given, whereas football would be a more likely answer, despite swimming being a relatively common word to encounter.

  2. To What Extent Is motivated Forgetting Produced By Failure Feedback?

    The results show a large difference so we will accept the alternate hypothesis, although there is a question as to how significant is the actual difference. But because it is quite large, we assume it is significant; we will reject the null hypothesis.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work