• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Short term memory.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Psychology Homework Question 1 With temporal duration the material held in the STM is relatively short-lived. Baddely and Hitch (1974) suggested that information may survive in the phonological loop for two seconds. Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) believed it may last a little longer, although only a matter of a few seconds. Many psychologists believe that memories in the LTM are permanent, and the work of Penfield (1969), and studies of memories recovered through hypnosis would appear to support this idea. However this evidence was shown to be unreliable when examined more critically. Even so it is apparent that LTM is durable and that some memories last a lifetime. With storage capacity Miller (1956) proposed that STM was capable of storing 7 plus or minus 2 items or chunks of information at a time. Baddely and Hitch (1974) suggested that the Phonological Loop is capable of holding the amount of material that can be remembered within a two second time span: that capacity is time limited, rather than space limited as suggested by Miller.The capacity of LTM is generally considered to be infinite. ...read more.

Middle

Question 2 A procedure that has been used to investigate the capacity of short term memory was Glanzer and Cunitz (1966) experiment. This was where subject's were gathered and each subject was presented with 15 words. They had been previously told that they would have to try to remember as many letters as they could. They gave 30 seconds for some of the group to learn the letters, and found that this was where the group had recalled the majority they had done during the test. Where when the subjects were given 10 seconds of learning time, there was a poorer recall of later items. The results for the 30 seconds of learning time showed a rough approximation of the capacity of the short term memory, and helped approximate that short term memory has a maximum capacity of around 7 � 2 items. Question 3 Working Memory consists of numerous features, but mainly is that it describes short term memory, telling us what the information means, by processing it. ...read more.

Conclusion

The articulatory rehearsal process is the part of working memory that you would use when attempting to remember a telephone number that someone has given you whilst you hunt for a pen and paper to write it down. Information in the phonological loop is held in a temporal and serial fashion (i.e., the information that goes in first comes out first). * the visuo-spatial sketchpad The visuospatial sketch pad is where a limited amount of spatially and/or visually represented information is maintained and manipulated. It is similar in some ways to the articulatory loop, for example, it has the ability to rehearse information. It can loosely be thought of as an 'inner eye'. * the central executive The central executive can be seen as a supervisory system. It allocates attention to incoming stimuli and directs the operation of the other components of working memory. In some ways it is the most important component of working memory, since it is used when dealing with any task of a cognitively demanding nature. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Are memories permanent and unalterable?

    4 star(s)

    Loftus claimed that the reason for this was the way in which memory may be altered by subsequent information, clearly supporting the importance of retroactive interference. Alternation can also be observed by the reconstructive 'nature' of memory. Giving a big role on interpretation, Bartlett (1932)

  2. SHORT TERM MEMORY

    This study may also prove to be conflicting evidence to one of the study's mentioned or discussed above. AIM The aim of this investigation is to investigate the short-term memory, and how it long it can store an information In this study the experimenter will look at how information is encoded in our short-term memory.

  1. Psychology Retrospective Interference coursework

    This can be applied in school and be implemented in daily teaching. Teachers may apply this theory by not giving similar materials for students to learn after they just learned the earlier material to reduce the likelihood of retrospective interference and forgetting.

  2. Investigating the short-term memory

    To sum up anonymity will remain as the names of the participants shall not be included nor needed. If you decide to participate you are free to withdraw your consent and to discontinue participation at any time without having to give a reason and without consequence.

  1. effects of chunking and unchunking on short term memory

    A table to show the mean and the standard deviation values: Un-chunked Chunked Mean: 4.92 6.56 Standard Deviation 1.869 1.356 I used a Wilcoxon's Matched Pairs. I chose this statistical test because the two sets of data are related, repeated measures design.

  2. How Minority views afects Majority - Conformity

    The dependant variable is whether participants conform to the majority or not. The experiment will have 2 conditions and experimenter will be using an independent measures design. This is so that the hypothesis can be concluded by comparing results from both conditions.

  1. Investigating the effects of organisation on learning

    and chimpanzee (16/20). Conversely, words such as China (4/20) and cow (8/20) were very infrequently recalled. The patterns observed here indicate that the words most often recalled fall into one of two groups: * Words very common in usage and typical to their category in the word grid; or * Infrequently-used words which stand out.

  2. To What Extent Is motivated Forgetting Produced By Failure Feedback?

    RESULTS Summary Table Table to show the descriptive statistics. Test with scores Test without scores Number of Participants 30 30 Totals 229 266 Mean Scores 7.63 8.87 Range 17 19 Summary Table Commentary From the summary table it shows that the test including the scores had a lower mean score than the test without the scores.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work