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The studies carried out by Milgram, Piliavin, Haney and Gardner & Gardner, have unearthed some very important as well as surprising details about human behaviour and experience which in nearly all situation affects it.

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Introduction

YEAR 1 - PSYCHOLOGY ESSAY QUESTION 1A The studies carried out by Milgram, Piliavin, Haney and Gardner & Gardner, have unearthed some very important as well as surprising details about human behaviour and experience which in nearly all situation affects it. This question looks at the various forms of human behaviour, which make us what we are and also looks at 'experience', something we all seem to rely on heavily. Firstly, in Milgram's study of obedience, it was found that under pressure or authority we sometimes do what we normally would not have done, therefore showing that others influence our behaviour, particularly those who we think are more superior to us. "Carry on ......", one of the main prods the experimenter used on the teacher to make the teacher carry on with the shock treatment. This shows that not only the presence of some authority figure, but also what they do and say can influence human behaviour. One of the reasons, which make us think that a person is superior to us, is because we think of the experience he/she has in that particular field or area. Because of this we assume that they are superior to us and that what they tell is the only option we can follow. Of course this is not always the case. Hitler did have some men in his army who did not follow his instructions and did try and betray him, but the majority of his army did do as he commanded. ...read more.

Middle

Experience once again can affect behaviour. This is because those who have been in a prison before will feel that it is not that bad as they have been there before and know what to expect whereas those who haven't been before find it as a shock. Those who have been in prison before may behave in a more civilised manner than others who haven't. Finally, the experiment carried out by Gardner and Gardner did not really uncover anything about human behaviour apart from the fact that language is something we are innately programmed to do. In this experiment a chimp named 'Washoe' was taught ASL(American Sign Language), but even after 4 years of training, only 132 signs were learnt. In comparison with that human children learn much more as they grow older, therefore showing that humans are innately programmed to do so. It also shows that we have a much more complex form of communication which animals like chimps cannot learn. Experience is again a relative feature in this experiment. The experiment shows that with adequate experience even animals can learn features of our communication, therefore if they were to continue to be taught for many hundred of years they too may be able to communicate in the complex form that we are now able to communicate in. Therefore all these various studies show a close relationship between experience and our behaviour. ...read more.

Conclusion

QUESTION 1C The impacts of this psychological research have had many advantages and disadvantages on life. Firstly, Milgram's study has unearthed some very I important facts about human behaviour, which can lead to a many problems, which can be split in two categories. First being the disadvantages for the individual and the second being the disadvantage for the society. Milgram's study suggests that we seem to obey people in authority. This would incidentally mean less control for an individual and what's more it can mean in he/she having to do what they are told and not necessarily what the individual wants to do. This can lead to other severe other problems such as a lack in self-confidence and also maturity as other would be making most of the decisions for the individual. If a whole society was full of people who did not have their own say in a matter it would mean that the society itself would just be a computer game, which just a few people can play, and control. Other problems for the society would include a lack of dissent and therefore no pressure for social change. Although these are just the disadvantages, there are of course some advantages. Firstly, advantages for the individual include less aggravation and more acceptance. This would then result in a much more settled society and it would mean that there would be greater social order. This would then result in far less fights, wars and disputes. 1 Psychology Essay 1 ...read more.

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