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The use of music seems to be a good way of operationalising the IV as many people do learn to the sound of music so therefore the difference between the music and no music condition should be marked.

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Introduction

Discussion Validity The use of music seems to be a good way of operationalising the IV as many people do learn to the sound of music so therefore the difference between the music and no music condition should be marked. Also, getting the participants to write down the words is a good way of measuring the DV as it means it is easy to collect and analyse the data. The study itself was quite simple and it seemed to measure what effects music has on learning. The independent variable was manipulated in such a way that it was hard for there to be anyway the results could have been affected significantly. Also because the measurement method was very simple there isn't a chance that the results could be interpreted in the wrong way. As the study was a laboratory experiment it doesn't have as high validity as a field experiment. Although the participants were not in a strange environment, the fact that they knew they were being studied may lower the ecological validity of the study. Leading on from the fact that the study might have bad ecological validity, there is also the problem of the study having bad participant reactivity. ...read more.

Middle

One possible confounding variable was introduced by the fact that there were four researchers in the room at the time of the study and they all knew the hypotheses. They may have tried give the participants help in recalling the words by giving hints and clues so that the results were more conclusive. This may have led to unreliable comparisons between conditions. As the study was a laboratory experiment it meant the researchers had good control over the study. The words that were chosen were all unambiguous so the participants would not have interpreted them in different ways. Also the test had been severely standardised. The words were shown on an over head projector so they were all looking at the same thing when learning was taking place. Also the testing was completed in the same room and at the same time of day for each condition so the participants were not feeling more tired in one condition than the other. Improving reliability The only possible way to improve reliability was to keep researcher contact to a minimum or have a person in the room that was unaware of the hypothesis so they couldn't alter the study in any way. ...read more.

Conclusion

Generalisation of Findings An opportunity sample was taken from Hills Road Sixth Form College. Although the participants were not picked randomly they were randomly assigned to each condition. The participants were picked in a relatively unbiased way which means that is should be possible to generalise to those that got to Hills Road. Most of the participants used were of middle or upper class and were all reasonably intelligent and between the ages of 16 and 18. It could be true to say that participants at another school may have shown different levels of recall. This means that it may be wrong to generalise the results to the whole population. Application of the study to everyday life The results from our study on cued recall suggest that people do recall more when learning and recalling when there are similar cues present while both have occurred. This implies that if you are to learn something while listening to a particular song then you are more likely to recall when that same song is still playing. So when you revise for a particular subject it could be made much easier if the conditions in which you are learning stay the same when you are needed to recall that information. ?? ?? ?? ?? Daniel Hanfling Perriton ...read more.

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