• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13

Theories of Human Development - Stages of Development

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Theories of Human Development Stages of Development It is easy to see life as a series of stages, which people pass through. Babies look and behave very differently from young children, but adolescents are very different children. Infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age can be seen as different stages in life. In past centuries Europeans often saw the human life-span as being like the four seasons of the year. Infancy and childhood were like spring, full of new beginnings and possibilities. Adolescence and early adulthood were like summer - the most exiting and best time of our lives. Adulthood was autumn, a time of harvest and fulfillment. Old age was a winter - a time of decline and death! Shakespeare saw the male life cycle as having seven stages. He runs through them in a famous speech in a play As You Like It, Act 2: scene 7. 1. Infancy 2. The school boy 3. The lover 4. The soldier (or warrior) 5. The justice (or judge) 6. The shrunken, impaired old man 7. Last of all, 'second childishness and mere oblivion' These theories of life stages were picked up by Charlotte Buhler (1933). According to her theory, biological stages of development create a basis for understanding our lives. There are five stages of biological development as listed over leaf. Charlotte Buhler's Stages of Development * 0-15 years Progressive growth but no reproduction ability. ...read more.

Middle

These attractions are called the Electra and Oedipus complexes: named after characters in ancient Greek mythology who experienced these attractions. Freud believed that as children develop they have to give up the opposite sex parent as a 'love object' and learn to identify with the same sex parent. He believed children's experience of 'letting go' of their love may have permanent effects on their later personality. * Latency: After the age of 5 or 6, most children have resolved the Electra and Oedipus complexes (Freud believed that this was usually stronger and more definite in boys, i.e., girls often continue with a sexual attachment to their father!). Children are not biologically ready to reproduce so their sexuality is latent or waiting to express itself. * Genital: With the onset of puberty adolescents become fully sexual and 'life drive' is focused on sexual activity. Freud's Mental Mechanisms Freud believed that we are born with an id. The 'id' is part of our unconscious mind that is hidden from the conscious understanding. The 'id' is like a dynamo that generates mental energy. The energy motivates human action and behaviour. When a young child learns to control, its own body during toilet training the ego develops. The 'ego' is a mental system, which contains personal learning about physical and social reality. The 'ego' has the job of deciding how to channel drive energy from the unconscious into behaviour which will produce satisfactory outcomes in the real world. ...read more.

Conclusion

The idea that human development fits eight stages (or five stages) of coping with crises of change does not make intuitive sense to everyone. While there may be some important ideas about emotional development in psychodynamic theory, some authors claim that the theories are both too rigid to provide a full understanding of development. Many people fail to identify with the idea of the developmental crises. Many people seem to experience change as a smooth sequence of gradual adjustment. Psychodynamic theory provides an interesting way of interpreting past life experience - but it is possible to question whether people in the future will experience the biological pressures that Erikson originally identified in the middle of the last century. Castells (1997) argues that science now gives people not only the power to live longer, but also the power to delay reproduction and the effects of aging. Sexuality can be decoupled from reproduction so that sexual behaviour becomes a form of recreational pastime rather than linked to a biological time clock for reproduction! As technology gives people the power to intervene in their own biological nature, notions of biologically controlled stages of development may become increasingly dated, at least with respect to adult life. Theories of human development Contents Page Stages of development 1 Charlotte Buhler's stages of development 2 Arnold Gasell's biologically determined development 3 Freud - psychodynamic theory 4 Freud's stages of psychosexual development 5 Freud's mental mechanisms 6 Erikson's stages of development 7-10 Conclusion 11 (Extracts taken from Neil Moonie (ed) Advanced Health and Social Care Heinerman Educational Publishers (2000) p 309-314) 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. counselling stages of attachement

    * There are enormous differences between the ways in which infants form attachments. Strengths - High Ecological validity - was carried out in the infants own homes, suggesting the behaviour was more natural Longitudinal study - more variables were kept constant as the same children were used in the study.

  2. Communication skills in a group interaction.

    This would indicate to me that my interaction was a success on the basis of that it was fun, exciting, and there was nothing too bad that affected them in the interaction. This would show that I was successful in achieving my purpose, which to me is a great accomplishment.

  1. c hallenging a client to change

    But thank you for discussing how your feeling. Could you now move back into the centre again and repeat the process on a new road? Chris: ok, On the third road I can see a new job external to the college, I don't know what it may be but it

  2. Pavlov: Dogs and Bells.

    This was tested on a young child named Albert, to see whether skinners theory works on humans as well as dogs. Giving Albert a rat to play with at nine months old did not produce fear. But when a bar was struck behind Albert's head he began to cry.

  1. Free essay

    Developmental Differences across the Lifespan. In our research we are going to talk about ...

    Intentionally communicates Gestures with vocalizations Uses sounds to call others 10-11 mos.Vocabulary with two words or approx. Uses objects as tools Laughs at own sounds Attempts to label objects 11-12 mos. May recognize words as symbols Uses "ma-ma" with meaning Imitates new sounds Imitates tones of adult 12-13 mos.Uses three

  2. INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE

    separated from their mothers, he discovered that children went through three distinct stages: - 1. Protest - this includes crying and screaming the child will probably try to look for their mother. 2. Despair - the child becomes lethargic and uninterested.

  1. Child Development

    Unfortunately, all these tests are predictors. A reasonable treatment depends on the type of defect. Unnatural substances called teratogens also can have a harmful effect on the growing fetus (Coon 93). Drugs and alcohol are some of these damaging elements.

  2. The idea for my coursework is the potential changing aspirations of teenage girls in ...

    Children Here I asked questions concerning their own views on having children, for example when and how many. I found that * 100% of the girls would like to have children. * 83% of this 100% would like to have children between the age of 25-29 and 17% between 30-35.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work