• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

There are many studies done by psychologists showing some of the major impacts of early experiences and how they affect a child's later development. But the real question is does the experience actually affect the child's development?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Critically Consider the Impact of Early Experience on Later Development There are many studies done by psychologists showing some of the major impacts of early experiences and how they affect a child's later development. But the real question is does the experience actually affect the child's development? One of the psychologists who believed this was true was Bowlby and the study he done on the 44 thieves (children who had problems of stealing). This study compared children who were affectionless psychopaths and children who were not affectionless psychopaths and he found that 86% of those children had suffered, 'early and prolonged separations from their mothers'. Bowlby suggested that this related to later social maladjustment. This study did show that early experience affected the child's later development because the children grew up with major behavioural disorders. This study was also the basis of Bowlby's Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis. The hypothesis derived by Bowlby suggested that if an infant were unable to form a warm, close and continuous relationship with the mother then that child would have trouble forming relationships with other people in the future. Also the child would be at risk of behavioural problems just like the children In the 44 thieves study. There were many criticisms towards this hypothesis such as other forms of deprivation may have caused the negative behaviour e.g. ...read more.

Middle

They were released at seven years of age and could hardly walk and had poor speech. Though when the correct care was given they became well adjusted and cognitive able. Both these cases indicate that despite the extreme emotional and physical deprivation suffered as children, positive attention and care would largely repair this damage and allow them to develop into well adjusted adults. This suggests that Bowlby's hypothesis was wrong as he did not mention anything about recovery from the early experience, but only talked about the negative impacts. The third case was done by Curtiss (1977) on a girl called Genie. Genie had a history of isolation, neglect and physical restraint, as she was kept strapped to a potty in the attic by her father. She was punished if she made a sound. She was released at 13 years of age to a foster home and was described to have a much younger appearance, was primitive, unsocialised and 'hardly human'. Genie never managed to achieve social language or adjustment. To a certain extent this does agree with what Bowlby said but we also have to consider the age of release. In the other two cases there were positive outcomes because Isabelle and the twins were released at around the age of 7 whereas Genie had been released at 13, so age of release may be a mitigating factor. ...read more.

Conclusion

All of the above studies either give evidence for the fact that experience does or does not affect a child's later development. All the study's lead back to the important hypothesis made by Bowlby and whether they agree or disagree with it. The last study I have chosen to mention is that of Quinton et al (1985). They wanted to find out whether children deprived of parental care became depriving parents themselves. They observed one group of women brought up in care, interacting with their children and compared them to a group of non-institutionalised mothers. The women brought up in care were less sensitive, supportive and less warm towards their children. This could be explained in terms of their actual deprived childhoods or various experiences the women had as a result of their early upbringing. This study tends to outline what Schaffer mentioned: 'Early experiences... do not necessarily produce irreversible effects just because they are early...' So yet again, this illustrates the fact that continuing poor experiences are associated with poor recovery, but the sooner the child's care is improved then the sooner recovery can occur. Early experiences do not necessarily affect later development as there is always a chance of recovery. So in conclusion early deprivation does not give enough cause and effect towards later maladjustment. Similarly Clarke and Clarke (!998) said 'the evidence is firm, while there is a range of outcomes, early social experience by itself does not predestine the future.' ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. Factors that Affect Growth and Development.

    Emotional Development The American psychologist G. Stanley Hall asserted that "adolescence is a period of emotional stress, resulting from the rapid and extensive physiological changes occurring at pubescence" (Child Care and Education: Penny Tassoni). The German-born American psychologist Erik Erikson sees development as a psychosocial process going on through life.

  2. “Bowlby’s maternal deprivation hypothesis states that any separation during the critical stage of development ...

    it was found that there were no differences in terms of delinquency or problems in forming social relationships. Therefore, it would appear that separation does not inevitably have harmful effects, as long as bond disruption is minimized.

  1. Psychology Cae Studies

    This implied that they were not entitled to rights. Loss of control over what we as humans have come to expect, when we eat, when we sleep, and when use the bathroom. They lost the power to do all these things. Learned helplessness: - They became dependent upon the guards for everything.

  2. Child Development

    5,600 infant deaths a year (Eisenberg, Murkoff, and Hathaway, What to Expect When Your Expecting 54-55). After conception, growth begins at a rapid rate. By the end of the first month of life the embryo is smaller than a grain of sand and has begin to develop a heart, digestive tract, sensory organs, and arm and leg buds.

  1. Samuel and Bryant (conservation)Bandura, Ross and Ross (aggression)Hraba and Grant (doll choice) a. What ...

    Another example is seen when the child was first shown two rows of counters alongside each other and then he was asked if they were quantitatively the same. Afterwards, one of the rows of counters was either lengthened or shortened and then the child was asked the same question once again.

  2. PERSONALITY DISORDERS

    showed that borderline personality disorder is associated with the use of immature defence mechanisms. Social Learning Theory Bandura's social learning theory (1977, cited in Paris, 1993) explains the development of personality traits in children through modelling or the direct reinforcement of their parents.

  1. Although Shrek 2 purports to be a cartoon aimed at younger children, it is ...

    an 18? Is it because of the animation it did not receive this certificate of "grown-up hood"? But South Park did! And if it were just for children... initially there would not have to be any "parental guidance" anyway! In this case Shrek 2 should be examined before drawing a conclusion.

  2. Bowlby claimed that children who experience early and lasting separations from their primary attachment ...

    Privation is when there is a lack of an attachment. There have been two main lines of evidence regarding privation. These are a set of case histories of children raised in extreme isolation and longitudinal studies of children in institutional care.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work