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To make participants rely on their short-term memory by using visual intakes/coding of six from the consonants B, C, F, M, N, P, S, T, V and X, because the rate was to fast for the participants to keep them they had to rely on their memory.

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Introduction

Encoding in short term memory - Conrad (1964) Aim: To make participants rely on their short-term memory by using visual intakes/coding of six from the consonants B, C, F, M, N, P, S, T, V and X, because the rate was to fast for the participants to keep them they had to rely on their memory. Procedure: participants were shown random sequences of six letters taken from the consonants B, C, F, M, N, P, S, T, V and X. Six letters were shown in rapid succession in a screen and participants were required to write them down as they appeared. Findings: Errors were noted and rate of presentation was too fast for the participants to keep up so they had to rely on memory. Conrad found that the significant majority involved the substitution of a similar sounding letter for example 'b' for 'v' and 's' for 'x'. In a similar study he found that participants found it hard to recall a string of acoustically similar letters. Conclusions: He concluded that's such acoustic confusion provided evidence for acoustic coding in STM. Criticisms: * On the negative side, he only used six certain constants he may of found more out if he had used a lager group of letters. * Also people in real life often learn lists like this so it would be new to their memory not an everyday thing they usually use. ...read more.

Middle

Findings: Peterson and Peterson found that participants were able to recall trigrams after three seconds. They recalled fewer after 6 seconds and at 18 recall was very poor. Conclusions: Is that memory trace in short-term memory has just about disappeared after 18 seconds. It's as if the information is written on a magic slate and as time passes the writing fades away. Criticisms: * On the positive side we the simple nature of the experiment means that we can clearly identify the effect of the independent variable (time delay) on the dependent (recall). * The research lack mundane realism as a recall of trigrams are not representative in everyday memory demands. Duration in long-term memory - Bahrick ET AL (1975) Aim: To find out if people do have very long-term memories that are not confabulated. Procedure: They asked 392 ex high school students of various ages to free recall names of any classmates and also showed them a set of appropriate photographs and asked them to identify individuals Findings: Even after 34 years ex-students were still able to name 90% of photographs of their classmates. After 48 years this had declined to 80% for name recognition and 40% for face recognition. Free recall was considerably less accurate: 60% accurate after 15yrs and only 30% accurate after 15yrs. Conclusions: The findings show that classmates are rarely forgotten once recognition clues have been given. ...read more.

Conclusion

Repression - Levinger and Clark (1961) Aim: To look for repression and to see if there is a difference between participants recall of their associations to neutral or negative emotionally charged words. Procedure: Asked participants to generate associated words to a series of words presented by the researchers. Some of the words were neutral and others were emotionally arousing. When asked to recall participants rather would recall the neutral than the emotional. Findings: Participants have greater difficulty remembering there associations to negative emotionally charged words than to neutral words. A difference in recall speed was found. Also it was found that negative emotionally charged words produced higher galvanic skin response. Conclusions: It was concluded that the greater the difficulty in the recall of negative emotionally charged words compared to neutral words was explained by the repression. This was supported by the galvanic skin response data, which showed that the emotionally charged words created more arousal, which may have led to them being repressed into the unconscious to reduce anxiety. Criticisms: * The level of arousal may be a confounding variable as whilst immediate tests of recall found the emotionally charged words to be poorly recalled, delayed recall tests have found that emotionally charged words are remembered better than neutral words. This contradicts repression as an explanation to the findings. If repression had occurred than the words should still be repressed, so recall should not improve. * It lacks mundane realism as emotionally charged words have much lower threat than real life anxiety provoking stimuli. ...read more.

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