• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17
  18. 18
    18
  19. 19
    19
  20. 20
    20
  21. 21
    21
  22. 22
    22
  23. 23
    23
  24. 24
    24
  25. 25
    25

To retain recall, which is more beneficial, rote rehearsal or imagery?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

To retain recall which IS MORE beneficial rote rehearsal Or IMAGERY L. WADE 12.02.02 TRURO COLLEGE TUTOR; DR C.A. DE BRULLER. CONTENTS Pg No. ABSTRACT 1 INTRODUCTION 2 - 4 METHOD DESIGN 5 PARTICIPANTS 5 MATERIALS 5 - 6 TASK & RESEARCH 7 RESULTS BAR CHART- GRAPH 9 SUMMARY OF RESULTS & 9 VERBAL RESULTS 9 DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION 10 -11 APPENDICES APPENDIX 1 STANDARDIZED INSTRUCTIONS 12 APPENDIX 2 LIST OF 20 NOUN SYLLABUS WORDS 13 APPENDIX 3 PARTICIPANTS SIGNATURE SHEET (ROTE) 14 APPENDIX 4 PARTICIPANTS SIGNATURE SHEET (IMAGERY) 15 APPENDIX 5 SUMMARY OF STATISTICS & CALCULATIONS 16-19 APPENDIX 6 WRITTEN EXAMPLE FROM PARTICIPANT (ROTE) 20 APPENDIX 7 WRITTEN EXAMPLE FROM PARTICIPANT (IMAGERY) 21 REFERENCES: 22 ABSRACT This investigation is similar to Bowers (1972) study where he investigated the two conditions of Rote rehearsal and Imagery. An independent groups design was selected to represent in my experiment because there was a restriction in the amount of time available. An opportunity sampling which consisted of a single blind technique was used. Thirty members within the residential area of Helston were chosen to take part in this procedure. This incorporated them taking part within a memory maintenance and elaborative rehearsal test. Fifteen residents represented the control group and fifteen represented the experimental group. The results of this research reflected in the standardized deviation (SD) =3.20 and a mean value =13.07 (imagery). The results for the SD =2.47 and a mean value =11.13 (rote). These results support my alternative Hypothesis as there is a significant difference between the two conditions. As the imagery group recalled a larger amount of words compared to the rote rehearsal group. Introduction Memory has been described in many different ways, but we could describe it as a mental function by which we are able to retain and retrieve information about events that have happened in the past, or present. (Cardwell, 1996, p153). ...read more.

Middle

Deception could be an ethical issue to consider during this research, because even though written consent was collected at the end of the experiment, the researcher could still withhold information from the participant, whilst the experiment had begun. This may consist of omitting to tell them some important aspect of the research. To quash this issue a written standardized instructions form was read out to the participant before the research began. The standardized instructions are stated in Appendix 1. The British Psychology Association (BPA) made up a code of conduct that was legalized because of violation in research that had taken place in the past. Materials The researcher wrote down a list of twenty noun syllabus words from the board as a class exercise. Each individual wrote those words down on paper, then folded each word then placed them all in the bin. Then each member of the class selected twenty words from the bin and they were then incorporated into this research. Then each class member processed them on a larger scale through the computer. A word example; HOME The twenty words were then hand shuffled into an order then pasted onto a five by four card. On the back of the cards they were numbered from one to twenty. Then by using a watch the researcher could time the participant looking at the cards for approximately five seconds per word. Then each individual were given a pen and paper to write down how many of the words they could recall. The researcher would time them for approximately two minutes to do so. List of twenty noun syllabus words are shown in Appendix 2. The aim of this research was that we asked thirty individuals from the residential area of Helston town to take part in a memory, maintenance and elaborative rehearsal test. Fifteen represented (group A) control group and fifteen represented (group B) ...read more.

Conclusion

THANKYOU FOR TAKING PART IN THIS RESEARCH. Appendix 2 This is the list of the twenty noun words that were presented to each participant. They were written in bold times new roman size 72 font. 1. HOME 2. SUN 3. TREE 4. DOG 5. CAR 6. CHAIR 7. SHOP 8. SHOE 9. STAIR 10. GLASS 11. EGG 12. BOX 13. BALL 14. CAT 15. ROOM 16. RAT 17. HAT 18. GRASS 19. PEN 20. PUB Appendix 3 This is a written example of a participant representing rote rehearsal. APPENDIX 4 This is a written example from a participant representing imagery; APPENDIX 5 SUMMARY OF STATISTICS AND CALCULATIONS Raw data ROTE Participants X X2 1 12 144 2 10 100 3 14 196 4 13 169 5 9 81 6 10 100 7 10 100 8 9 81 9 18 324 10 10 100 11 11 121 12 8 64 13 11 121 14 10 100 15 12 144 Total SUM 167 1945 IMAGERY Participants X X2 1 17 289 2 15 225 3 9 81 4 17 289 5 15 225 6 14 196 7 9 81 8 12 144 9 15 225 10 13 169 11 15 225 12 11 121 13 17 289 14 8 64 15 9 81 Total SUM 196 2704 APPENDIX 5 continued Calculations All calculations are correct to two decimal places: Formula for Standardized Deviation (SD) = E X2 - (EX)2 _________n__ n - 1 E= SUM of X= Participants Score n = Number of participants ROTE: Standardized Deviation (SD) = 1945 - 27889 _________15__ 14 Standardized Deviation (SD) = 1945 - 1859.27 _________ 14 Standardized Deviation (SD) = 85.73 14 Standardized Deviation (SD) = 6.12 Therefore the ANS = 2.47 IMAGERY: Standardized Deviation (SD) = 2704 - 38416 _________15__ 14 Standardized Deviation (SD) = 2704 - 2561.07 _________ 14 Standardized Deviation (SD) = 142.93 14 Standardized Deviation (SD) = 10.21 Therefore the ANS = 3.20 Appendix 6 This is a written example of a participant representing rote rehearsal. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

Summary

The writer has answered the original question. They have briefly introduced the subject of memory including two models, and have then gone on to discuss the idea of maintenance and elaborate rehearsal. Some of the grammar could be improved in places but overall it is fairly easy to read and understand. The writing shows that the writer has carried out quite a lot of work and if they take on board the comments made, it would be possible to improve this score.

Score 4*

Marked by teacher Linda Penn 10/09/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    In this essay I am going to contrast and compare three approaches in psychology ...

    4 star(s)

    According to the theory of reinforcement, these financial helps are positive reinforcements (rewards) for 'good' behaviours (get more educated). Social learning theory is another approach to behaviourism of Albert Brandura. It 'emphasizes the importance of observing and modelling the behaviours, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others.'

  2. Experiment to Test Memory Using Recognition and Free Recall.

    The total number of syllables recalled in the free recall condition was 52 with a mean average if 5.2, compared to 107 in the recognition group with an average of 10.7. The lowest figure for free recall was 1; in the recognition condition it was 8.

  1. Stroop Test Experiment

    be identified more quickly than if the color the word is written in is contradictory. NULL HYPOTHESIS: There will be no significant difference in the time taken to read colored words written in the same colored ink and the name of colors written in different colored ink.

  2. The effect of chunking on memory recall in STM.

    and recall the numbers in the correct order aloud after each one is read out. Procedure Each participant was sat down on a bench in an empty patio outside. This was the only available space to conduct my experiment where there were no other people.

  1. Investigating the short-term memory

    Finally it can also explain how people remember information and the code used in the process. As the study is being based on the Baddeley study, the two groups will be given a list of 10 words in which they will be given a minute to look at them.

  2. In psychology there are different methods of investigation, these would be observation, survey, clinical ...

    An advantage to this is that it is really good for observing specific participants. A disadvantage would be if the observation is undisclosed then consent would not be obtained. One researcher, Laud Humphreys, done a study called Tea Room Trade in 1970, which was the study of homosexual acts that was happening in public toilets.

  1. Free essay

    Levels of Processing Theory

    An advantage to the Levels of Processing theory is that it has practical applications because you can use the knowledge of the theory in everyday life.

  2. The Effect Chunking of Numbers has on Short-Term Memory Recall.

    Extraneous variables such as temperature and outside distractions could not be controlled. The temperature of the area in which the experiment was conducted varied. A set of instructions read out before the start of the experiment dealt with ethical issues that may be related to this study, such as informed consent, deception and ability to withdraw.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work