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To retain recall, which is more beneficial, rote rehearsal or imagery?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

To retain recall which IS MORE beneficial rote rehearsal Or IMAGERY L. WADE 12.02.02 TRURO COLLEGE TUTOR; DR C.A. DE BRULLER. CONTENTS Pg No. ABSTRACT 1 INTRODUCTION 2 - 4 METHOD DESIGN 5 PARTICIPANTS 5 MATERIALS 5 - 6 TASK & RESEARCH 7 RESULTS BAR CHART- GRAPH 9 SUMMARY OF RESULTS & 9 VERBAL RESULTS 9 DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION 10 -11 APPENDICES APPENDIX 1 STANDARDIZED INSTRUCTIONS 12 APPENDIX 2 LIST OF 20 NOUN SYLLABUS WORDS 13 APPENDIX 3 PARTICIPANTS SIGNATURE SHEET (ROTE) 14 APPENDIX 4 PARTICIPANTS SIGNATURE SHEET (IMAGERY) 15 APPENDIX 5 SUMMARY OF STATISTICS & CALCULATIONS 16-19 APPENDIX 6 WRITTEN EXAMPLE FROM PARTICIPANT (ROTE) 20 APPENDIX 7 WRITTEN EXAMPLE FROM PARTICIPANT (IMAGERY) 21 REFERENCES: 22 ABSRACT This investigation is similar to Bowers (1972) study where he investigated the two conditions of Rote rehearsal and Imagery. An independent groups design was selected to represent in my experiment because there was a restriction in the amount of time available. An opportunity sampling which consisted of a single blind technique was used. Thirty members within the residential area of Helston were chosen to take part in this procedure. This incorporated them taking part within a memory maintenance and elaborative rehearsal test. Fifteen residents represented the control group and fifteen represented the experimental group. The results of this research reflected in the standardized deviation (SD) =3.20 and a mean value =13.07 (imagery). The results for the SD =2.47 and a mean value =11.13 (rote). These results support my alternative Hypothesis as there is a significant difference between the two conditions. As the imagery group recalled a larger amount of words compared to the rote rehearsal group. Introduction Memory has been described in many different ways, but we could describe it as a mental function by which we are able to retain and retrieve information about events that have happened in the past, or present. (Cardwell, 1996, p153). ...read more.

Middle

Deception could be an ethical issue to consider during this research, because even though written consent was collected at the end of the experiment, the researcher could still withhold information from the participant, whilst the experiment had begun. This may consist of omitting to tell them some important aspect of the research. To quash this issue a written standardized instructions form was read out to the participant before the research began. The standardized instructions are stated in Appendix 1. The British Psychology Association (BPA) made up a code of conduct that was legalized because of violation in research that had taken place in the past. Materials The researcher wrote down a list of twenty noun syllabus words from the board as a class exercise. Each individual wrote those words down on paper, then folded each word then placed them all in the bin. Then each member of the class selected twenty words from the bin and they were then incorporated into this research. Then each class member processed them on a larger scale through the computer. A word example; HOME The twenty words were then hand shuffled into an order then pasted onto a five by four card. On the back of the cards they were numbered from one to twenty. Then by using a watch the researcher could time the participant looking at the cards for approximately five seconds per word. Then each individual were given a pen and paper to write down how many of the words they could recall. The researcher would time them for approximately two minutes to do so. List of twenty noun syllabus words are shown in Appendix 2. The aim of this research was that we asked thirty individuals from the residential area of Helston town to take part in a memory, maintenance and elaborative rehearsal test. Fifteen represented (group A) control group and fifteen represented (group B) ...read more.

Conclusion

THANKYOU FOR TAKING PART IN THIS RESEARCH. Appendix 2 This is the list of the twenty noun words that were presented to each participant. They were written in bold times new roman size 72 font. 1. HOME 2. SUN 3. TREE 4. DOG 5. CAR 6. CHAIR 7. SHOP 8. SHOE 9. STAIR 10. GLASS 11. EGG 12. BOX 13. BALL 14. CAT 15. ROOM 16. RAT 17. HAT 18. GRASS 19. PEN 20. PUB Appendix 3 This is a written example of a participant representing rote rehearsal. APPENDIX 4 This is a written example from a participant representing imagery; APPENDIX 5 SUMMARY OF STATISTICS AND CALCULATIONS Raw data ROTE Participants X X2 1 12 144 2 10 100 3 14 196 4 13 169 5 9 81 6 10 100 7 10 100 8 9 81 9 18 324 10 10 100 11 11 121 12 8 64 13 11 121 14 10 100 15 12 144 Total SUM 167 1945 IMAGERY Participants X X2 1 17 289 2 15 225 3 9 81 4 17 289 5 15 225 6 14 196 7 9 81 8 12 144 9 15 225 10 13 169 11 15 225 12 11 121 13 17 289 14 8 64 15 9 81 Total SUM 196 2704 APPENDIX 5 continued Calculations All calculations are correct to two decimal places: Formula for Standardized Deviation (SD) = E X2 - (EX)2 _________n__ n - 1 E= SUM of X= Participants Score n = Number of participants ROTE: Standardized Deviation (SD) = 1945 - 27889 _________15__ 14 Standardized Deviation (SD) = 1945 - 1859.27 _________ 14 Standardized Deviation (SD) = 85.73 14 Standardized Deviation (SD) = 6.12 Therefore the ANS = 2.47 IMAGERY: Standardized Deviation (SD) = 2704 - 38416 _________15__ 14 Standardized Deviation (SD) = 2704 - 2561.07 _________ 14 Standardized Deviation (SD) = 142.93 14 Standardized Deviation (SD) = 10.21 Therefore the ANS = 3.20 Appendix 6 This is a written example of a participant representing rote rehearsal. ...read more.

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Summary

The writer has answered the original question. They have briefly introduced the subject of memory including two models, and have then gone on to discuss the idea of maintenance and elaborate rehearsal. Some of the grammar could be improved in places but overall it is fairly easy to read and understand. The writing shows that the writer has carried out quite a lot of work and if they take on board the comments made, it would be possible to improve this score.

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Marked by teacher Linda Penn 10/09/2013

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