• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extent does psychological research (theory and/ or studies) suggest that the effects of deprivation and privation on development are different?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Assignment: 'It has been suggested that only the effects of privation are lasting; children recover from early emotional deprivation.' To what extent does psychological research (theory and/ or studies) suggest that the effects of deprivation and privation on development are different? Michael Rutter suggested that privation and deprivation have distinct effects on development. He argued that privation is more likely to cause harmful, long term effects than deprivation. Hodges and Tizard carried out a longitudinal study to look into the possibility of long- term effects of privation, by assessing 65 institutionalised children. Hodges and Tizard found out that at the age of 4 the children were more attention seeking but at the age of 8 they had formed close attachments with biological parents( or adopted). ...read more.

Middle

Furthermore, one weakness of research into maternal deprivation is that the data used was gathered retrospectively, which means participants are relying on memory. However research into memory has shown that memory is not always accurate. Furthermore, parents who were interviewed in Bolwby's study may have the desire to present themselves in a good light therefore they may lie, which in turn reduces the reliability of such data. Similarly one weakness of Hodges and Tizard's study is that the original sample was reduced ( attrition) and it may be that those who dropped are systematically different to those who remained. For example they could have been the ones who were more troubled. This in turn threatens validity of the study. On the other hand, From Hodges and Tizard's findings, we can see that early institutional care and lack of close attachment did not have severely damaging effects. ...read more.

Conclusion

If this is the case then it is deprivation rather than privation. Similarly, Skeels and Dye illustrated that children who were placed in institutions scored poorly on intelligence tests. However, it is quite difficult to establish the extent to which deprivation caused poor performance In Skeels and Dye study as it may be possible that other factors such as individual differences may also account for this rather than deprivation. Furthermore, it is also difficult to establish whether the children they studied were initially deprived or it was privation. Although evidence show that there are important differences in the effects of privation and deprivation, we do not have enough evidence to actually show that these children where are not attached to someone on during sensitive years or not. For this reason it is difficult to reach any firm conclusions on the differences in their effects. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. define attachment and criticise Bowlby's theory of maternal deprivation

    It also showed that these children did suffer difficulties in their social relationships. This proved that although Bowlby was right in the fact that separation did have some affect, it was not always as disastrous as he had predicted. This could be seen in the case of the Koluchov´┐Ż twins (1976)

  2. MENTORSHIP ASSESSING

    The teaching session was of a practical nature it was, therefore, experiential fulfilling Rachel's potential for personal growth. Andrews and Roberts (2003) deduce there is no doubt the clinical milieu is full of rich learning experiences and that learning is more meaningful if the learner actively participates.

  1. Psychology Cae Studies

    Ecological Validity Laboratory conditions= experimental conditions=artificial Note as soon as you see lab you automatically think artificial. The experiment was conducted at Stanford University not at a real prison. The group was homogeneous -lacking in ethnicity, social class and gender. The prison subjects were blindfolded and taken to the prison.

  2. A research project to look if bullying is spiralling out of control

    I asked teachers in college to complete the questionnaire. This helps me to generalise the results from the whole population and can also minimise the chance of selecting biased samples. All participants agreed to participate. It took around 5- 10 minutes for each participant to complete the answers, which was still rather time consuming even since I had cut down the questions since the pilot study.

  1. Outline research (theories and/or studies) into privation and consider how the research helps us ...

    At age 16 adopted children were more attached to their parents than the restored group. All were less likely to be part of a crowd, less likely to be liked by other children and more likely to be bullies. They concluded the first two years of a child's life have

  2. 'To what extent do research studies support the view that maternal deprivation can have ...

    There are various issues to be considered. First, much of the evidence used to support the idea came from studies of children in institutions where they were deprived in many ways. Therefore, it may not be maternal deprivation, but other forms of deprivation, which affected subsequent development.

  1. The Psychological Development of a Client.

    This is as a result and part of our Oedipus complex. This occurs in the phallic stage of our development. This is again a controversial part of Freud's theory. Freud's explains this as a child's feelings and attraction towards the parent of the opposite sex.

  2. What does the research on privation suggest its effects on the child are?

    Clarke and Clarke (1976) argued that effects of early privation are more easily reversed than previously thought. After reviewing Dennis's research they concluded that, "The prolonged time spent in the institution has not had a direct, irreversible effect on intellectual functioning, but has had effects which may interfere with future learning and development."

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work