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To what extent does psychological research (theory and/ or studies) suggest that the effects of deprivation and privation on development are different?

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Introduction

Assignment: 'It has been suggested that only the effects of privation are lasting; children recover from early emotional deprivation.' To what extent does psychological research (theory and/ or studies) suggest that the effects of deprivation and privation on development are different? Michael Rutter suggested that privation and deprivation have distinct effects on development. He argued that privation is more likely to cause harmful, long term effects than deprivation. Hodges and Tizard carried out a longitudinal study to look into the possibility of long- term effects of privation, by assessing 65 institutionalised children. Hodges and Tizard found out that at the age of 4 the children were more attention seeking but at the age of 8 they had formed close attachments with biological parents( or adopted). ...read more.

Middle

Furthermore, one weakness of research into maternal deprivation is that the data used was gathered retrospectively, which means participants are relying on memory. However research into memory has shown that memory is not always accurate. Furthermore, parents who were interviewed in Bolwby's study may have the desire to present themselves in a good light therefore they may lie, which in turn reduces the reliability of such data. Similarly one weakness of Hodges and Tizard's study is that the original sample was reduced ( attrition) and it may be that those who dropped are systematically different to those who remained. For example they could have been the ones who were more troubled. This in turn threatens validity of the study. On the other hand, From Hodges and Tizard's findings, we can see that early institutional care and lack of close attachment did not have severely damaging effects. ...read more.

Conclusion

If this is the case then it is deprivation rather than privation. Similarly, Skeels and Dye illustrated that children who were placed in institutions scored poorly on intelligence tests. However, it is quite difficult to establish the extent to which deprivation caused poor performance In Skeels and Dye study as it may be possible that other factors such as individual differences may also account for this rather than deprivation. Furthermore, it is also difficult to establish whether the children they studied were initially deprived or it was privation. Although evidence show that there are important differences in the effects of privation and deprivation, we do not have enough evidence to actually show that these children where are not attached to someone on during sensitive years or not. For this reason it is difficult to reach any firm conclusions on the differences in their effects. ...read more.

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