• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extent does psychological research (theory and/ or studies) suggest that the effects of deprivation and privation on development are different?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Assignment: 'It has been suggested that only the effects of privation are lasting; children recover from early emotional deprivation.' To what extent does psychological research (theory and/ or studies) suggest that the effects of deprivation and privation on development are different? Michael Rutter suggested that privation and deprivation have distinct effects on development. He argued that privation is more likely to cause harmful, long term effects than deprivation. Hodges and Tizard carried out a longitudinal study to look into the possibility of long- term effects of privation, by assessing 65 institutionalised children. Hodges and Tizard found out that at the age of 4 the children were more attention seeking but at the age of 8 they had formed close attachments with biological parents( or adopted). ...read more.

Middle

Furthermore, one weakness of research into maternal deprivation is that the data used was gathered retrospectively, which means participants are relying on memory. However research into memory has shown that memory is not always accurate. Furthermore, parents who were interviewed in Bolwby's study may have the desire to present themselves in a good light therefore they may lie, which in turn reduces the reliability of such data. Similarly one weakness of Hodges and Tizard's study is that the original sample was reduced ( attrition) and it may be that those who dropped are systematically different to those who remained. For example they could have been the ones who were more troubled. This in turn threatens validity of the study. On the other hand, From Hodges and Tizard's findings, we can see that early institutional care and lack of close attachment did not have severely damaging effects. ...read more.

Conclusion

If this is the case then it is deprivation rather than privation. Similarly, Skeels and Dye illustrated that children who were placed in institutions scored poorly on intelligence tests. However, it is quite difficult to establish the extent to which deprivation caused poor performance In Skeels and Dye study as it may be possible that other factors such as individual differences may also account for this rather than deprivation. Furthermore, it is also difficult to establish whether the children they studied were initially deprived or it was privation. Although evidence show that there are important differences in the effects of privation and deprivation, we do not have enough evidence to actually show that these children where are not attached to someone on during sensitive years or not. For this reason it is difficult to reach any firm conclusions on the differences in their effects. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. MENTORSHIP ASSESSING

    the learning that has taken place at the end of a teaching session. Both parties initiated questioning before, during and after the teaching session and along with being formally prepared as a teaching technique, these questions and answers were also pertinent to aiding the interpersonal relationship of the author and Rachel, thus creating a positive mentor/student relationship.

  2. define attachment and criticise Bowlby's theory of maternal deprivation

    Although this investigation had parallels, obviously it could not be extrapolated to human research. In contrast to the Bowlby, Hodges and Tizard (1978) put forward that even in severe cases of deprivation; careful therapy could improve a child's chances of successful future relationships.

  1. Outline research (theories and/or studies) into privation and consider how the research helps us ...

    At age 16 adopted children were more attached to their parents than the restored group. All were less likely to be part of a crowd, less likely to be liked by other children and more likely to be bullies. They concluded the first two years of a child's life have

  2. A research project to look if bullying is spiralling out of control

    All of the respondents answered no to this which didn't surprise me. This was because help for bullying has only just started over the past few years so I didn't expect their to be any help around 40 years ago.

  1. What does the research on privation suggest its effects on the child are?

    Clarke and Clarke (1976) argued that effects of early privation are more easily reversed than previously thought. After reviewing Dennis's research they concluded that, "The prolonged time spent in the institution has not had a direct, irreversible effect on intellectual functioning, but has had effects which may interfere with future learning and development."

  2. Psychology Cae Studies

    arrested and ended when they were finger printed and photographed, contributed to the prisoners internalising the prison. This occurred because of the shock value it signified a break from the prison (subjects) everyday reality they were arrested-they were now prisoners.

  1. 'To what extent do research studies support the view that maternal deprivation can have ...

    There are various issues to be considered. First, much of the evidence used to support the idea came from studies of children in institutions where they were deprived in many ways. Therefore, it may not be maternal deprivation, but other forms of deprivation, which affected subsequent development.

  2. The Psychological Development of a Client.

    We might be able to credit Freud with him pointing out that moral emotions such as pride, shame and guilt are important and that the internalization of moral principles is a crucial step along the way of morality. However, a lot of Freud's work is largely unsupported.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work