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Understand the link between psychodynamic concepts & understanding mental health issues - For example, using research linking early trauma to later mental disorder.

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Understand the link between psychodynamic concepts & understanding mental health issues. For example, using research linking early trauma to later mental disorder. Alex (Lemma-Wright, 1995): * Alex organised a sea boat-trip to celebrate sister's birthday * She suffered a panic attack on boat * Alex had always loved her sister but also resented her a little, believing that her family always fond of her sister more than Alex * On 1 occasion she had become so angry with her sister for being centre of attention that Alex dragged her into the sea, frightening her. * As an adult, Alex felt she had to organise her sister's life including financial difficulties * She didn't no why she had the panic attack until several days later when she had a dream about having fight with friend (who reminded her of sister) and wished her dead * Alex realised that on the boat trip in which she had taken her sister into the sea again, stirred up guilty memories of times she had dragged her into the sea From this case of Alex we can see that long-buried childhood memories return to produce anxiety in the form of panic attacks. ...read more.


However, like all structured interview studies, Brown & Harris' work still has the limitation that it relies on participants' ability to report accurately and truthfully their experiences, including those many years in the past. After the study of Brown and Harris is Bifulco et al (1991). Where he reported that depression was more common in women who had lost their mothers by death or by family re-ordering (i.e. changes to the family such as separation, divorce and remarriage). Interestingly, death of the mother was more likely than loss by family re-ordering to precede depression. Kessler and Magee (1993) found that several childhood factors, including parental heavy drinking, domestic violence, the death of a parent and the lack of a close relationship with an adult all increased the probability of suffering depression in adulthood. These studies clearly show that childhood stress, traumatic experiences and lack of good relationships increase the probability of later mental disorder. BUT there are causes for mental disorder. There is an increasing body of research showing that genes can be important in predisposing people to mental disorder. There are also some conditions that appear to be the result of faulty learning of behaviour. ...read more.


* These can be feelings of irritation, dislike or sexual attraction * Freud saw these feelings of countertransference as a failing, but these days they are considered to be inevitable Resistance: * Resistance is a defence mechanism that helps the client to resist these interpretations. * They will be resisted, because they are going to be painful * Defence mechanisms are there to keep those feelings and urges unconscious * So the client may make jokes, excuses, fall asleep or turn up late * The analysist must have enough of a relationship with the client to help them to work through the resistance Free Association: * The client says whatever comes into their mind, no matter how absurd or unrelated it seems * The analyst and the client then examine such associations, and again look for meanings Dream Interpretation: * The client can outline dreams, and together the client and the analyst can interpret them * It is as if 2 adults are getting together to study a child * Dreams involve symbols and these symbols are analysed * The idea is that the unconscious desires might be revealed in dreams, but they would still be disguised, and it is the analyst job to help to uncover meanings behind dreams. Ross Evans 26/2/03 ...read more.

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