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Use of non humans

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Psychology Homework Research How it helped psychology? Ethical Issues Pavlov demonstrated classical conditioning where he explained how dogs can associate saliva with food. He therefore said behaviour is learnt through conditioning Shows that we are conditioned to do something because we've learnt it though association Many experts argue that learning theory is more relevant to the learning shown by these species than it is to human learning. We are more complex than other species and possess language and much of our learning seems to go beyond classical conditioning Harlow raised monkeys for lengthy periods in total isolation and then placed them with other monkeys in order to test who they would attach with. i.e.: a cloth covered artificial monkey or a wired version of a monkey Shows that babies of any species don't just depend on caregivers for food but also need comfort and protection from caregivers Animal suffering must be found out by careful observation and experimentation. ...read more.


them more susceptible to the damaging effects of sleep Lorenz hatched goslings so that he would be the first thing that they saw in order to explain imprinting Shows that imprinting can occur and there is an innate tendency to adjust towards only one individual when in a critical period Animal studies can provide useful hypotheses for subsequent testing with human participants Guiton reversed imprinting in chickens to challenge the characteristics of imprinting to some extent Shows that imprinting takes place most easily at a certain time but could still happen at any time during development Animals can be used to test cause and effect relationships where the existing human evidence is only correlational The evolutionary theory devised a theory which states that the function of sleep is similar to that of hibernation Shows that animals that are preyed upon such as herbivores should sleep more than carnivores since sleep would protect them from predation Non human animal evidence - the ecological theory correctly predicts that the daily sleep time of many species is related to how vulnerable they are whilst asleep Kamin used two groups of animals. ...read more.


Seligman exposed dogs to electric shocks they could not avoid. The dogs were given shocks after a warning signal Shows that dogs have two forms of learning. The first form is learned helplessness which means not avoiding something within a situation. The second form is avoidance learning which means avoiding something by escaping out of the situation Compared with humans, non-humans are smaller and therefore are easier to study within the laboratory. This makes it much easier to study their development, since several generations can be studied in a relatively short time Blakemore and Cooper used kittens to conduct a classic study to observe the specific effects that visual experience has on the type of perception that is developed Shows that the ability to perceive line orientations can be lost due to adjustments made in the visual cortex during critical periods Evidence from studies of non human animals must be treated with caution because it is possible that their perceptual systems are less affected by experience than humans perceptual systems ...read more.

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