• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

"Violence on Television may have behavioural effects, emotional effects or ideological effects." (Buckingham in Barker and Petley(eds) 1997:39). Comment critically on the notion of television's effects under these three headings.

Extracts from this document...


Amy Best Audiences and Impacts Batar 2 Carole O'Reilly 3. "Violence on Television may have behavioural effects, emotional effects or ideological effects." (Buckingham in Barker and Petley(eds) 1997:39). Comment critically on the notion of television's effects under these three headings and demonstrate how the available evidence remains contradictory. Concern about violence within popular media has a long history. Plato proposed to ban poets from his ideal republic, because he feared that their stories about immoral behaviour would corrupt young minds. In modern times, moral pressure groups have tried to 'protect' people, especially children from television, the cinema, and 'video nasties'. It's important to see the issue of television violence and it's link with behaviour in a social, cultural and historical context, and to also know that the media is often used as a scapegoat. For example, tremendous violence is almost always seen in classic Shakespearean theatre and yet it is considered necessary and educational in today's society. Blaming the media helps to divert attention from other causes of change, and so claims about the 'effects of television' can be massively exaggerated. The extremely broad and often ambiguous nature of violence seen on television can and has resulted in many disagreements concerning the degree of effects this can have on an audience. ...read more.


It is also thought that the theorists conducting the study may have intentionally encouraged the aggression, something that most parents would not. So although Bandura did prove that the children's behaviour was undoubtedly linked to the images they had seen, it was an artificially made environment (both literally and by means of behaviour expressed by all parties) and therefore I would argue that it couldn't possibly reflect a true scenario. Other studies relating to this concept reached the same conclusions until a study by Feshbach and Singer (1971). Understanding that the environment of a laboratory may be a establishing factor in the behaviour of children, Feshbach and Singer decided to conduct their experiment in schools, an environment in which the children would feel comfortable and therefore more inclined to react in a way which is more accurate. Going into a boy's home the theorists spilt a class into two groups, and conducted a manipulated situation over a duration of six weeks. The boys were exposed to different types of television, one group were shown typically 'violent' shows, and the other observed generally neutral television. The results proved an opposite reaction to Bandura's study; the boys exposed to the violent television remained the same, while the other group had gotten considerably more aggressive during the experiment. ...read more.


However, in regard to emotional effects, there have been a number of studies relating to a slight change in attitude and emotional feelings expressed. A 1999 experiment for example looked at the emotional consequences of repeated exposure to extensive violence on film. Researchers assigned both male and female college students to view either extremely violent or non-violent feature films for four days in a row. On the fifth day, in an unrelated study, the participants were put in a position to help or hinder another person's chances of future employment. The results did indicate that both the men and the women who had been exposed to the film violence were more harmful to that person's job prospects, whether she had treated them well or had behaved in an insulting fashion. The study concluded that the repeated violence viewing provided an 'enduring hostile mental framework' that damaged interactions that were affectively neutral. This experiment records a specific change in attitude and emotional behaviour but does not provide any evidence of direct violent changes in that person, and therefore simply states that a short term change of state may be apparent through increasing larges amounts of exposure to violence on television. Again, studies are extremely contradictory and ambiguous when referring to the emotional effects of violent television and it is increasingly difficult to result in a clear conclusion when discussing the degree of effects that is has on the audience as a whole. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. Television Violence and Children's Behaviour

    novel acts of aggressive behaviour which they have acquired simply through observing someone else engaged in these acts. In a later version of the experiment (1965), the children were divided into 3 groups. One group went straight into the playroom.

  2. Samuel and Bryant (conservation)Bandura, Ross and Ross (aggression)Hraba and Grant (doll choice) a. What ...

    6 boys with opposite sex model 6 girls with same sex model 6 girls with opposite sex model In stage one of the experiment, the children were placed in the experimental room and the model soon joined them in this room.

  1. “Young are trained to kill; violence in the media”. To what extent is it ...

    and boys in Finland. For boys in both countries, later aggression was much higher in those who not only watched a great deal of violent TV but also identified highly with the characters they watched. As in many other studies, parental factors were also found to be associated with children's aggressiveness.

  2. Psychology Cae Studies

    Is this the mirror or the projector? This would explain to us why there are repeat offenders. Prison became the reality for prisoners so that is all they know. What other choice do they have but to become repeat offenders. What happens when juveniles are placed in the prison system they internalise the prison and become hardened prisoners.

  1. How does watching television influence the behaviours and cognitions of young children?

    Ofcom, the broadcast regulator, predicted that this ban would decrease children's over all exposure to junk food advertising by forty one percent, as children would still have access to this advertising when watching other channels or programs that are not necessarily aimed at young children, for example 'Britain's Got Talent', is a popular program watched by both children and adults.

  2. Using studies from the list below, answer the questions which follow: Rosenhan (sane in ...

    However there are problems inherent in this approach. For instance German citizens who objected to and spoke out against Nazi atrocities were seen as being socially deviant. It is also true to say that what is regarded as deviant varies from culture to culture.

  1. c hallenging a client to change

    can see a possible new role that I could do, Counsellor: does this new role have a title yet? Chris: yes, I could see myself doing a job in the college which is working with environment issues, which is what I used to do prior to coming to teaching in this college.

  2. Is Popular culture an Influence on Violent Behaviour?

    As mentioned above, Bandura and Liebert et al.'s experimental studies were conducted in controlled situations with pre-determined outcomes, something never usually associated with violent crimes linked to popular culture . That is, the outcome and shocking nature of many violent acts linked to popular culture are immeasurable and the outcomes

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work