• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

What is meant by term 'memory' and what models have been used to explain it's functioning?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

What is meant by term 'memory' and what models have been used to explain it's functioning? Memory research started out under the behaviorist influence and looked at the process only in the terms as input and output. With the advent of the information processing approach, models were proposed for the activity taking place in between. Memory can be characterized as any one of the following: * The mental function of retaining data, i.e. learning * The proposed storage system which holds the data * The data that is retained These are the stages of memory and each is necessary but not sufficient condition for memory to have taken place. Memory can fail at any of these stages. William James (1890) first suggested a distinction between, as he termed them, primary and secondary memories. ...read more.

Middle

Although this is a useful conceptual tool, it doesn't give an adequately detailed account. The Working Memory Model was proposed by Baddeley (1986) and was an attempt to provide more detail, although it only deals with the STM and recently activated parts of the LTM. It concentrates on systems by which information is processed in STM, and emphasizes the idea of an active processor. He projected that STM was not passive but actively involved in processing. Empirical evidence has come from studies where subjects have been shown to be able to perform two tasks, which involve STM concurrently. Baddeley suggested that working memory consists of a Central Executive, which controls three slave systems. The central executive is the most important part of the system and is used with difficult tasks such as problem solving. It can process information from any of the senses, and can even store information for a short period of time. ...read more.

Conclusion

Experiments showing how organization of material unwittingly leads to good recall also demonstrate that processing and memory may well be equivalent. This is another model that is said to be over-simplified, and the depth of processing model in some ways describes rather than explains what is happening. Also the notion of depth in an intuitive one and cannot be measured in any scientific sense, and while depth is important in some situations, other features, such as relevance, can account for different results. I believe that the working memory model is the least plausible as it does not account for LTM. Although the Multistore may be simple and does not have a detailed account, I think that it clearly show how STM and LTM memory works and makes sense. The Levels of Processing model is difficult to use because depth cannot be measured in a scientific sense. Psychology Elly Lucas Page 1 of 3 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. SHORT TERM MEMORY

    which included the idea that in order to recall information in the short term memory the information has to be first given attention in order to be passed on to short term. The recall result therefore depends on the amount of time rehearsed.

  2. Memory: Rote Rehearsal and Mental Imagery.

    My findings support and strengthen bowers research but question other researchers such as Anderson and Atkinson and Shiffrin.

  1. Investigating the short-term memory

    Both groups will have 1 minute to recall any words. That means it calculates the group 1 experiment will take up to 2minutes and group2's up to 3 minutes. The music provided will be from a radio and a stopwatch will be needed also to time the participants accurately.

  2. Explain and evaluate the three models of memory.

    They suggested that maintenance rehearsal might be enough to keep information in the STM while elaborative rehearsal was used to transfer information to the LTM. The next model was proposed by Baddeley and Hitch (1974), they began by criticising the multi-store model by believing that it played a much more

  1. Psychology Retrospective Interference coursework

    This can be applied in school and be implemented in daily teaching. Teachers may apply this theory by not giving similar materials for students to learn after they just learned the earlier material to reduce the likelihood of retrospective interference and forgetting.

  2. Describe and evaluate models of memory.

    This suggests that semantic encoding as well as acoustic encoding occurs in short term memory. Both Conrad and Schulman research were laboratory experiments therefore they lack ecological validity due to controlled artificial environments. The participants used were undergraduate students and do not represent the general population.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work