• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Why cant one approach explain all human behaviour?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Why can?t one approach explain all human behaviour? Freud?s? theory of development based on the psychosexual stages proposes that adult behaviour is a direct consequence of how well individuals get through the stage sequence. The stages follow a child?s development when an erogenous zone becomes their focus in accordance with their age and these include the mouth (breast feeding), anus (potty training), genitalia (recognition of different sexes) and the phallic (genitalia) stage where the Oedipus/Electra complex results in a child identifying with the same sex parent. Freud theorised that in order to have a normal personality as an adult the stages must be satisfactorily passed without fixation by overindulgence or frustration as this would result in undesirable characteristics such as vanity. For example if a man appears too uptight and stingy this could be a result of anal retention because he gains pleasure from controlling as and when he goes to the toilet. Freud believed that the id, ego and super-ego are parts of our psyche that develop during the psychosexual stages and are an ever changing dynamic that interact to influence our behaviours. ...read more.

Middle

might take when stressed and anxious but we do not know which mechanism is being portrayed because it cannot be objectively tested. For example Ann might be in a supermarket having an argument with another customer who ?deliberately? took the last carton of milk, Freud would explain this as the id being in control as a result of oral aggression due to frustration and her display of anti-social behaviour indicates projection??.. Alternatively Ann?s behaviour could be explained better using a behaviourist approach. Behaviourism The behaviourism perspective of human behaviour focuses on a stimulus-to-response basis deducing that the environment directly determines behaviour. Its main features centre on behaviours adopted by operant conditioning, classical conditioning and social learning. Behaviourists use quantitative data from experiments and observation as research methods, because they believe that psychology should be scientific and behaviour must be measurable. Classical conditioning is a behavioural theory developed by Ivan Pavlov in the 1930?s theorising that we learn behaviour by association, he observed a natural response to a stimuli and then paired that existing response to a new stimuli. An example of classical conditioning is a case study by Watson and Rayner (1920) ...read more.

Conclusion

The mediating factors include the observer paying attention to the behaviour, how effectively they encode it, whether or not they are able to replicate it and how motivated they are to do so with the consideration of vicarious punishment and reinforcement by their ?model?. Behaviourism reduces human behaviour to a mechanical process and disregards individual thought process. The approach considers humans as products of their environment regardless of physiological differences. With the use of addiction as an example, behaviourism would explain it as a consequence of reinforcement. If for example vicarious learning initiated gambling because an individual frequently saw advertisements on TV showing casino winners, they could become addicted because of the positive reinforcement of winning and the irregular positive reinforcement strengthening the behaviour. Physiological The physiological approach to explaining behaviour has three main viewpoints and these include the functions of the different areas of the brain, the nervous system consisting of neurotransmitters sending messages to the brain and behaviours determined by hormones. The structure and function of the brain is used by physiological psychologist to explain behaviour by outlineing the connection between the function of cerebral hemispheres. ?Roger Sperry? discovered that separating the hemispheres connected communicating with each other by corpus collasum which are continuoly communicating with each other, case studies show that Neurotransmitters send messages http://faculty.stcc.edu/psyc400/psyc400/chapters/chapters4to6/lectures/lecture4a.htm ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level The Psychology of Individual Differences section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level The Psychology of Individual Differences essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Classical and Operant Conditioning

    3 star(s)

    However spontaneous recovery (recovery without treatment) from phobias has been found to be as high as 50-60% (McMorran et al, 2001). This shows that Systematic Desensitisation may contribute little to recovery. Systematic Desensitisation has also been used with OCD patients.

  2. Outline and explain the principles of one of the following: a) Maslow's Hierarchy of ...

    At this stage, the need is figure and everything else is ground. The second phase is "contact", where possibilities of meeting the need are evaluated. When out of these possibilities a means of restoring balance arises, it becomes figure and the individual assembles their resources to contact figure and overcome any obstacles that they may encounter.

  1. Investigation to find out which gender is better at recognising faces

    The time is recorded in a table. As the participant finishes with the pictures, he/she will be shown a debriefing form which tells them that they where being timed and thanks them for their participation. Following the research, especially where any deception or withholding of information had taken place, the Committee wished to emphasise the importance of appropriate debriefing.

  2. Free essay

    Discuss the range of methods available to the psychologist.

    In a natural experiment, the environment is natural. Within the natural experiment the researcher has to use a natural occurring IV instead of manipulating it. It can be a very cost effective way of research. This type of research has a high ecological validity and is most common in public health, behavioural economics and education.

  1. The contents of this essay will explain different psychological approaches to health and social ...

    treatment, these treatments have the ability to create ethical issues (Gross, 1991). As with the example stated above, the service user would have to experience a traumatic period of nausea, due to method of aversion therapy, which may conclude in ethical queries, for instance, such treatments being used with the absence of consent of the service user.

  2. EVALUATE THE MEDICAL MODEL AND THE BEHAVIOURAL MODEL OF ABNORMALITY

    and his fear of the white rat was the CR (conditioned response). Operant conditioning is learning through the consequences of behaviour. If behaviour is rewarded or reinforced then the likelihood is it will be maintained or increased. If it is punished, it will weaken and more than likely stop.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work