• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Covenantal Monotheism: A dissection of Jewish movements currently practiced in the United States.

Extracts from this document...


Covenantal Monotheism: A dissection of Jewish movements currently practiced in the United States David Bernardi The covenant of Judaism; a term that is so deep in the practices, beliefs, and history of Judaism that a life-long student scholar of religion would fall short in any attempt to encompass its meaning in mere words or writings. A bond between two. A bond forever unbreakable in the eyes of many, a bond so clear and understood it has directed the lives thousands of generations of people. A bond that has created beauty and life for some yet has brought war and death for others. Judaism is more than a religion. Judaism is a people, a history, a religion, and a culture; a culture that has, over thousands of years, endured years of persecution and has enjoyed years of ideological success. Judaism has also found the ability have a multi-lateral foundation of growth in terms of its beliefs and practices. Judaism has remained amazingly unchanged in practice and belief and has also found strength in evolving with modern times of changing eras. This remarkable feat is the basis of the different movements within Judaism. To examine the meaning of the Covenant of the Jewish religion it is necessary to first have an understanding of the differences that separate and similarities that bind the various movements. The practice of Orthodox Judaism is best described as a very particular Judaic religious system that affirms certain beliefs regarding divine revelation and eternal authority of the Torah, both oral and written. ...read more.


Newly founded, the Reform Movement catered greatly to the many United States immigrants arriving from Europe during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Simply, the Reform Movement does not believe that the Torah was written by God, but by separate sources (man) redacted together. Also, Reform Jews do not believe in the observance of commandments as such, but they do retain much of the values and ethics of Judaism, along with some of the practices and culture. Between Orthodoxy and Reform, a third movement began in the United States. Conservative Judaism attempts to find a centrist position on the values of tradition and change. This movement affirmed a far broader part of the received way of life than Reform, yet it rejected a much larger part of the worldview of the system of the dual Torah than did Orthodoxy. However, Conservative Jews agreed with the Reformers in their basic philosophical position, but also with the Orthodox in their concrete way of life. The stress of Conservative Judaism, also called Historical School in Europe, can be broken down in two matters. First and more importantly, scholarship, with historical research assigned the task of discovering those facts of which the faith would be composed, secondly observance of the rules of the received Judaism. This movement exemplifies orthoprax Judaism, which is defined through works, not doctrine. The Fourth American Jewish Movement that was initiated in he United States began in the early decades of the twentieth century. ...read more.


Since the Jews in exile could not live safe lives physically they agreed with a covenant that would allow them to feel safe spiritually and mentally, demonstrating the argument that religion often is merely fulfilling human need. In turn this exhibits the contention that contemporary Jewish religion was structured on need of the individual. Reform and Reconstructionist movements in Judaism acknowledge the event regarding the giving of the Torah. However, the core beliefs that separate them from Orthodox and Conservative Jews, the idea of religious evolution, further justifies the argument that the roots of the Covenant are based on human need. Judaism services those that need to be serviced by it. Reform and Reconstructionist acknowledge the events that happened at Mount Sinai, further, they also agree that there is a bond between them and God, a covenant. While the events at Mount Sinai are of pivotal meaning to Orthodox and Conservatives and their relationship with God through the covenant, to the Reform and Reconstructionist, the covenant is the pivotal aspect, in spite of what happened at Mount Sinai. The core of their belief, evolution, is justification for their newer "evolved" perspective of what happened at Mount Sinai. At one point it was essential to believe that God gave the Torah directly to Moses, this to serve the need of the individual. However, now the need of the individual is no longer what it was at that time, religious evolution verbatim. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Judaism section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Judaism essays

  1. Festivals are the best way to learn about your faith." Do you agree?

    so the Angel of Death passed over that house and spared the first-born son and the matzah symbolises the Israelites leaving in a hurry, before their bread has risen. These symbols in the festival enable Jews to understand and remember the story by relating the food they're eating.

  2. Describe the origins of two modern Jewish groups and explain the ways in which ...

    Chassidic Jews try their hardest to follow all the mitzvots and go to a lots of effort in trying. Strict orthodox even by pre-torn toilet paper so they don't have to tear. They will not turn on light switches or even the TV.

  1. Religion:Pharisees question and their impact on jewish life

    The bible is very critical of the Pharisees because they had many conflicts with Jesus and they did not believe that he was the Messiah and the true Son of God. And the Pharisees consequently killed Jesus. "The scribes and the Pharisees sit on Moses' seat; so practice and observe

  2. Explain the origins, practice and observance of Succot, include the particular significance of the ...

    A minority of Jewish people would build their Succah outside the synagogue. Some Jewish people in Israel would sleep in their Succah. Depending on different Mitzvah some Jewish people do not do this because of the climate they live in.

  1. Has Hasidism has been essential to the continuation of Judaism?

    Due to this need for intimacy with God the Hymn to Glory proved very influential and in the 13th century Moses de Leon (1240-1305) wrote the Zohar, in which he developed these ideas further. The Zohar became the holy book for the Kabbalah movement which is a mystical approach towards

  2. Knowledge and Understanding of the Confessions of Jeremiah

    Jeremiah felt this was stupidity on their part, and appealed to the people to return to the covenant, but they paid him no heed. The call from Jeremiah is a call for repentance. Kidner said "Judah had seen it all and followed suit, sinning with her eyes open.

  1. Explain Judaism as a theory of religious ethics

    In the Talmud Rabi Akiva also mentions how this is a ?main principle of the Torah?, emphasising its importance to Jewish ethics. Furthermore when asked to recite the Torah on one foot , Rabbi Hillel simply said that the idea of ?loving your neighbour as yourself? is the whole Torah and the rest is just commentary.

  2. Discuss at least four key Biblical events and their significance to Jewish Scriptures

    Adam is instructed to have many children. The first duty of all 613 mitzvot is that the establishing of a home and having family. Overall, creation proves G-ds existence and introduces his role of humanity. The Moshiach will only come when all souls have descended to the Earth so its

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work