• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Examine the key concepts associated with two of the following: Immortality of the soul, rebirth, reincarnation, and resurrection ii.) Discuss the claim that belief in life after death is credible.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Transfer-Encoding: chunked ´╗┐Life after death essay 21st February 1.) Examine the key concepts associated with two of the following: Immortality of the soul, rebirth, reincarnation, and resurrection ii.) Discuss the claim that belief in life after death is credible. Plan: Resurrection Rebirth Death has been defined as ?the complete and permanent cessation of all vital functions of a living creatures, the end of all life.? Many philosophers agree on the first part, the end of a form of life, but not necessarily the latter, the end of all life, this is partly due to a variety of factors such as genes, life?s works and memories. However, different views on life after death often stem from views on the soul, which can be defined as, ?the immaterial ?I? that possesses conscious experience, controls passion, desire??. Some will say that the mind and soul are interchangeable; the mind comes from the soul, while others will differ in this opinion. Dualism was put forward by Plato, Descartes and Kant, who argued that the body is made of two parts; the physical and non-physical. In contrast with dualism, monism fits with the typical modern neurological view that our minds and selves are aspects of our autonomy. There are various theories for what occurs after death, such as resurrection, rebirth, reincarnation and immortality. However, resurrection is a monist theory, in that a physical body is required for redemption while rebirth is where there is no essential self or soul, otherwise known as anatta. ...read more.

Middle

?God shows Ezekiel a valley of dry bones and states that he is able to ?make these live again?. The reviving of the dry bones signified God?s plan for Israel?s future national restoration, showing that Israel?s new life depended on God?s power and not the circumstances of the people. Putting ?breath? by God?s Spirit into the bones showed that God not only wanted to restore them physically but spiritually. Although, many interpret this passage in different ways and some maintain that this passage was only a metaphor. Within Christianity, whether resurrection involves a bodily life after death is debated. In general terms, Catholicism has traditionally believed in the resurrection of the person?s body and soul. The Church teaches that when a person dies, their body starts its process of decomposition. Meanwhile, the soul leaves the body and is immediately evaluated in a Particular judgment. There are three possible destinations immediately after the judgment, heaven, hell and purgatory. Later, when Jesus returns to earth he will conduct the final judgment. Saint Paul argued in favour of resurrection of two grounds. Firstly, since Jesus was resurrected, so too should Christians hope to be resurrected. Secondly, since God has created many types of bodies in nature, we should believe that he is able to make human bodies perfect (1 Corinthians 15). If we accept that God is creator, then resurrection seems a coherent idea. ...read more.

Conclusion

A Church persecutor, Saul of Tarsus, unexpectedly transformed into a believer after the resurrection. Verification is only possible in the weak sense of eschatological verification suggested by John Hick in his Celestial City analogy. John Hick is a materialist, who believes that the soul and the body are ?psycho- physically? unified. Hick explains in his Replica Theory, where he discusses how God makes it possible for people to be ?replicated? on a parallel universe. Hick talks about how the instantaneousness replication would be different from simply being transported from London to New York, he says all the individuals would know their dead and would be on a world populated by deceased individuals. His theory could be seen as incoherent because there is no evidence in science to suggest there is a parallel universe, however if you accept God?s omnipotent existence, this theory is plausible and does not depend on dualism. But, even Hick recognised the limits of his own theory and the fact that it is hypothetical in the extreme. It should be noted that this is an extending theory into the unknown and is purely hypothetical. To conclude, life after death is credible because believers avoid the limitations of rationality and focus on faith, rather than empirical evidence. While some philosophers like Bertrand Russell, argue that the hope of a better life in heaven relieves humans of responsibility for what happens on Earth and encourages a fatalist mentality, such beliefs may do the opposite and soothe fears of demise. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Philosophy section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Philosophy essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Theories of the resurrection of the body are logically coherent.

    4 star(s)

    Hick argues for the resurrection of the body from a metaphysical angle. He believes that at your death God creates an exact replica of you with the same physical and mental characteristics. This replica goes on to live in a 'different space' that only God can observe.

  2. Body soul destinction

    Within the book and analogy explains how if you were to look in the brain you would be able to locate an area that is stimulated and that thoughts must be generated in this area.

  1. Compare and contrast the immortality of the soul and the resurrection of the body. ...

    is a distinct and immortal entity within the body and that it can survive the death of the body and then ascend to the afterlife. Plato was one of the first people to give and extended argument in favour of the immortality of the soul.

  2. The verification principle offers no real challenge to religious belief. Discuss

    Ayer changed the definition of verification because he concluded that his distinction between strong and weak verification was not a real distinction as the strong form of verification could not apply to any statement, and Ayer had come to the conclusion that some statements can be conclusively verified.

  1. Evaluate the claim that the soul is distinct from the body:

    Indeed, Brian Daws also criticises Plato for his argument of opposites, suggesting that there isn?t always an opposite of something e.g. the colour yellow. Aristotle is also a very influential philosopher and although a student of Plato, he disagreed with Plato?s concept of the soul.

  2. Assess the claim that mental states cannot be reduced to physical states.

    Although this is true, reflection on behaviour, especially subconscious behaviour, can help us understand exactly how we were feeling and why. Mark, for example, is tired, and Amie is annoying him, Mark shouts at her, in an unreasonable manner, to be quiet.

  1. Conscience is innate. Discuss

    This conscience is developed as a result of parenting and upbringing. For example, saying ?please? and ?thank you? when addressing people. This happens when the conscience is immature and the consequences of an action determine whether it is right or wrong, so the child does not know if they have acted immorally until they have done the action.

  2. Examine the concepts of immortality of the soul with resurrection of the body - ...

    Many issues arise with Resurrection for only nine have ever been resurrected and the only evidence of this comes from the Bible, for example: ?A ghost does not have flesh and bones as you see I have?.(Luke 24:39) Immortality of the soul is another popular, monotheistic notion of life after death.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work