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Explain and comment on the ways in which Muhammad set about creating a united ummah between 622 and 632.

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Explain and comment on the ways in which Muhammad set about creating a united ummah between 622 and 632 Key to explaining the creation of the united ummah is the admission by Islam of the wars that were necessary in achieving their aim. The Muslim belief about 622 is that Muhammad and the muhajirun who followed him from Mecca to Medina were mostly accepted by most residents of Medina. The foundation for this was that they had been asked there in the first place - they were supposed to bring about a peaceful revolution in a city wrought with violence and feuds between seperate tribes of people. As such, Islam was going to be the heal on the wounds that were plighting Medina. The non-Muslim view however is that Jews and munafiqun had difficulties in accepting the ideals of Islam and ridiculed it. Muhammad was faced with a challenge in bringing the people round to his point of view, and by the end of 622, had only managed to persuade 1000. ...read more.


In this battle, Muhammad and his army were met with the force of 10,000 men. Stalemate arose when Muhammad dug trenches, and a storm saw off the Meccans, who had started disputes between themselves anyway. Non-Muslim suspicion of this story is largely insubstantial, although the morality of murdering 600-900 Jews later on in the year has been brought into question. This, and the sale of women and children into slavery by Muhammad's followers has been backed up with the teaching from the Qur'an reading 'God does not love the treacherous, the belief by many Muslims that it was the only way they had of creating the religious theocracy that they wanted, and the belief that they had every right to return the violence that they claim had been initiated on them by the Jews and Meccans. Muhammad set out to improve the relations between the Medinans and the Meccans in 628, when the two cities agreed to sign the Treaty of Hudabiya outside Meccan city boundaries. ...read more.


It is unlikely that Muhammad's motives were personal, as in the event that they had been, it would have been unlikely he would have set himself aside for so much criticism or persecution in fighting the Meccans. He would have stayed in Mecca and made a living as a trader if this was what he wanted. He would however have had political motives. These would have been necessary in converting a brutal city into a religious theocracy, and would have to have been backed up with a resolution to act in possibly violent ways to carry them through. What Muhammad was doing was by no means easy - he put his life on the line for Allah, who had already put him through visions to tell him what he had to do. Muhammad has been described by some people as being hungry for power, leading to his crusades, battles and treaties across Arabia. What it must be remembered is that he died in 632 as a reasonably old man - he fought not for himself but for Allah. ...read more.

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