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history of philosophy and ethics

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Introduction

Philosophy + Ethics The term philosophy derives from a combination of the Ancient Greek words. The word itself is of Greek origin: philosoph�a, a compound of ph�los and soph�a. Philos; meaning friend or lover and Sophia; meaning wisdom. What philosophy is, or should be, is itself a philosophical question that philosophers have understood and treated differently through the ages. Philosophy is the discipline concerned with questions of how one should live, what sorts of things exist and what are their essential natures, what counts as genuine knowledge and what are the correct principles of reasoning. Though no single definition of philosophy is uncontroversial, and the field has historically expanded and changed depending upon what kinds of questions were interesting or relevant in a given era, it is generally agreed that philosophy is a method, rather than a set of claims, propositions, or theories. Its investigations are based upon rational thinking, striving to make no unexamined assumptions and no leaps based on faith or pure analogy. ...read more.

Middle

This eventual symbiosis between ancient philosophy and Christianity may reflect the fact that philosophical creeds in late antiquity fulfilled much the same role as religious movements, with which they shared many of their aims and practices. Philosophy is broken up in to several primary areas, there is the Philosophy of religion, the philosophy of the mind and there is also the philosophy of science. The philosophy of religion is the branch of philosophy which discusses the nature and existence of God. Central questions include: Does God exist? What sort of evidence could justify belief in God? If there is a God, why is there so much suffering in the world? And is there life after death? Whereas the Philosophy of he mind studies the nature of the mind. Central questions in the philosophy of mind include: Is it possible for a machine to think? How is the mind related to the brain? And do animals have minds? ...read more.

Conclusion

These have traditionally been the three main approaches to normative ethics. Applied ethics is a discipline of philosophy that attempts to apply ethical theory to real-life situations. The lines of distinction between meta-ethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics are often blurry. In the history of Philosophy the question of Ethics comes to the fore soon after the Persian wars, since the Persian wars Ethics, or the investigation of this mysterious regulator of human action - the moral law - comes to the front in Greek Philosophy. Up to this time Greek Philosophy had been in the main natural philosophy. It made it its duty to investigate and explain the laws which hold in the world of nature. Now nature lost interest with the philosophers ever more and more. Man, or the ethical nature of humanity, became the central point of their investigations. Natural Philosophy ceased to make further progress, the natural sciences were divided from philosophy; all progress of the ancient philosophy came now from the study of the spiritual nature of man and his morality. ...read more.

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