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i) Outline the key features of the cosmological argument ii) To what extent is it a weak argument

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Introduction

Philosophy i) The Key features of the cosmological argument The cosmological argument is an argument adopted by Thomas Aquinas, William Craig, Leibniz and other scholars. It is an inductive argument that tries to prove the existence of God through experience and the evidence of the existence of the universe. Therefore the argument is said to be posteriori. Thomas Aquinas? ideas are derived from Plato and Aristotle who both concluded that the existence of the universe was caused by an intelligent being/unmoved mover. Aquinas was a theist who put up three ways to reach the conclusion of his premise. His first of many ways was centred on Aristotle?s conclusion of the ?unmoved mover?. He argues that, the things in the world can change location, place and form. He uses the burning firewood to illustrate that, for a piece of wood to become hot, it has to be changed by fire. Furthermore, he states that, whatever that is moved or changed cannot be moved on its own but by another because there would be an infinite regress of movers which is impossible. ...read more.

Middle

Furthermore, Aquinas states that, there must be an ultimate cause that exists outside time. He argues that God is that necessary being, because He cannot fail to exist. This would eliminate the problem of infinite regress. I support of Aquinas? argument, Leibniz argues that God must exist because of the ?principle of sufficient reason? which states that everything happened for a reason, has a cause for its existence and that history is an endless series of explanations. Therefore, he argues that God must exist in order to fulfil this principle. Leibniz also claims that the existence of all things must lie with a necessary being that has the reason for its own cause-it is elf contained. This is known as metaphysical necessity. In conclusion, the cosmological argument describes God as the unmoved mover, uncaused causer and a necessary being .He argues that there is a necessary being that is responsible for the existence of the universe and every contingent being. ...read more.

Conclusion

However, this is a very weak defence and Hume?s point further portrays a weak cosmological argument. Additionally, the cosmological argument may be wrong to assume that just because there is some property common to a group of individuals, that there is a common property to the whole group. This was put across by Hume as the fallacy of composition. Russell uses the analogy that ?just because every human has a mother, it does not mean that the human race as a whole must have a mother? must explain this criticism. Hume asserts that it is unreasonable to ask what caused the whole chain of events when we know each individual cause. This undermines Aquinas? second way and would support the claim that it is a weak argument. In conclusion, God may have all the properties to explain the universe, whereas science does not. Theism may also be the best explanation for scientific facts of the world but it doesn?t actually provide deductive a priori empirical truth only probability. ...read more.

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