AS and A Level: Judaism
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It means that they tell us to do something or not to do something. A good number of these Mitzvot are no longer possible for us to keep. Some, because the Temple was destroyed and the Jews can no longer do the ancient sacrifices, and others because so many of us live in the diaspora and cannot follow the land mitvot. Also, long before it was common anywhere in the world, the Jews stopped all forms of Capital Punishment even though it was a mitzvah in the Torah.
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In this essay I will explain these three different aspects of Kashrut into detail so there is a clear understanding of what the laws are to keeping kosher. With regards to food, one must understand that there are separate laws for different types of food. The requirements for animals are that they must chew the cud and they must also have split hooves in order to be kosher. One famous animal known for not being kosher is the pig. It is treif because it has split hooves however, is doesn't chew the cud.
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Many find it difficult to process or even believe that groups of people, in particular Jews and Homosexuals, would be punished for no valid reason as they were by the Nazis during the Holocaust. The extremities of the deaths seemingly lead people to form the idea that the targeted groups were in the wrong, which of course was not the case. It is not uncommon today for young people today to use the term, 'Jew' or 'gay' in a derogatory way.
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The answer is simply that the beliefs of the Pharisees could be adapted into new religious life. After the destruction of the temple, the Jewish race carried on and continued with their religious lives. In the times of Jesus there were around 6,000 Pharisees. This shows that they were followed and were very influential at the time. Ordinary men could join the Pharisee's and any person could join the national organisation as long as they were committed and studied the law in detail. Many people looked up to them. They were experts on Jewish law and helped to create the Mishnah, which is also known as the Oral Torah.
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Explain the origins, practice and observance of Succot, include the particular significance of the 1st, 7th, 8th and 9th days and the religious teachings upon which they are based.
During Succah there are many practices and rituals which take place. Depending on which Jewish group you belong to there are different practices, but in general most Jewish people share the same practice. According to Halakha (Jewish law) you can build the walls of Succah from wood, canvas, aluminium, plaster or regular walls of glass. Also the Succah can be made free standing or it can include one or two walls of a building. The roof of the Succah has to be made from organic material that is detached from the grounds, this includes Palm fronds, and bamboo and wood are the common types of material used.
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They will make a decision that they believe is protective of human life and maintains the covenant with God. All variants agree that life belongs to God and is a sacred gift, created in the God's image. This equal value for every individual life drives a responsibility to protect life and heal the sick. Such claims are supported theologically, in the Decalogue; the 6th commandment "thou shalt not kill" suggests the protection of human life. In every bioethical issue, Jews seek to preserve the dignity of life and maintain their covenant with God. However, actual Bioethical teachings may differ based on each variants source of ethical guidance.
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Hasidism began to emerge after many Jews began to question their own relationship with God after centuries of hardship and persecution throughout Europe notably in Germany in the 12th century and Spain in the 13th century. Many felt that Jews needed to regain their intimacy with God and sought to reconnect through new means other than reading the Torah. In the 12th century Judah ha Hasid wrote the 'Hymn to Glory' which expresses the feeling that one cannot ever know God, yet Jews have an urgent need for intimacy with him.
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Perhaps this teaches us the meaning of rising to face personal challenges. Yahweh said to Jeremiah "Be not afraid of them for I am with you to deliver you." This is very much the faith of believers today, that in times of trouble, God is constant in our lives. In Jeremiahs call, Yahweh outlines the purpose of his ministry. He says "I have set you this day over nations and kingdoms, to pluck up and to break down, to destroy and overthrow, to build and to plant."
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They are Biblical Criticism, textual studies of ancient Manu scriptures and the influences of other cultures. The view of the biblical criticism is that the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Torah, is composed from different sources. The explanation was first put forward around the 16th century. Spinoza is concluded that Moses was told to read the Book of Law to the people. This indicates it must have been much shorter otherwise it would have taken a longer time to dictate. 'This must mean that in the book in question was much shorter than the Pentateuch' written by (Spinoza, Cohn - Sherbok).
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This reveals what people wrote about. We have to be cautious about what archaeology can prove. From reading ancient texts, scholars can not always tell whether it is true or not. We can simply tell what the writer of the text wanted the world to believe. Archaeology can help to provide evidence that an event happened, but it cannot always show why it happened nor who was involved. Therefore it is most useful for corroboration. Through archaeology scholars can discover more about the times in which people in the Bible lived. What importance did they have as a nation among other nations?
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Zionism is the name given to the belief that Jewish people should have a national homeland in which to live. It is a political view based on the Jewish people's religious beliefs about Israel. Zionism first began in the 19th century. It was a movement which aimed to give Jewish people a homeland in Israel. The main two reasons for the start of the Zionist movement were because the Jewish people longed to have Israel as their homeland again and secondly because of anti-Semitism against Jews which was greatly experienced in the 19th Century e.g.
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Why did he not protect them here? Was the promise broken is what some Jews might say. Jews may question the existence of God as a result of the Holocaust. Where was God and why didn't he stop it? In this discussion the "problem of evil" arises. This states, How can an all loving and omnipotent God let suffering into the world? If God is omni benevolent (all good) why did he allow evil to happen? If God is omnipotent (all powerful) why didn't he stop it? Unfortunately there is no one right or wrong answer on this but individual Jews will carry their own opinions.
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This rich history's lineage can be traced back to the creation of the world when "Adam and Eve were created and lived in the Garden of Eden" (Rich, 2001). However, most historians cite the beginning of Judaism as the years of 1900 - 1700 B.C.E. At this time, Abraham was noted to be the chosen one to hear and adhere to the voice of God. Many scholars have doubted the historical accuracy of many writings associated with the foundation of this faith, since there is not corroborating stories shared from neighboring societies in the same era.
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for example 'thou shall not kill' an orthodox would defiantly not contemplate killing another leaving person even if they were in pain as it goes against the 6th commandment. As well as keeping the commandments the orthodox believe in the idea of physical being and the belief that the messiah is coming and that he will enlighten the world. Others ways which the orthodox Jews are able to express their belief and full holiness by performing areas such as Niddah and holding this family purity to the full extent, for example The Torah describes niddah, as 'the ritual impurity due
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Another division, Hasidic Jews hold a particularly strong and passionate belief that the Messiah is coming. The Hassidic community also believe that there personal devotions and actions have the properties that are able to hasten his arrival. On the other hand divisions such as Reform and Reconstructionist's Jews believe in the proposal of having a Messianic age but they disagree with the suggestion that there would be a Messiah. As well as the idea of the Messiah being expressed by different divisions in Judaism there is also the oral torah, well-known as the Talmud, which offers no awareness of the messiah but instead of the Messiah it mentions Moshiach and the era of Moshiach, which is meant to be a period of peace and freedom.
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The 10 commandments is an example of this. It is the summary that God gave Jews to follow. History says that they were written on stones that Moses brought down from mount Sinai, according to the Torah. There are two accounts of the ten sayings. The Ten Commandments describe people's duty towards God and each other. Moses also received the 'Torah', a holy book, on mount Sinai on his journey from Egypt to 'the promised land'. This trip was one of the most important events in Jewish history, when they escaped from slavery, leaded by Moses.
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The other view which is that sitting in the sukkah is not the most important thing of Sukkot. The reason why some people hold this is because a festival is not about one thing but many things just because it is called one of the things we do in the festival doesn't mean that is the main thing of the festival. In Sukkot it is not just sitting in the hut but also shaking the different species, so the main thing of the festival can't be just sitting in the sukkah.
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However natural human logic is not a sophisticated enough tool for discerning moral reality. Maimonides responded to a man who queried why Adam and Eve were rewarded with knowledge after the eating from the tree of knowledge: "there had been no blindness which was now removed, but he received a new faculty whereby he found things wrong which previously he had not regarded as wrong.2" To clarify: before they ate from the tree they had possessed an intellect "created in the image of G-d," similar to G-d being able to perceive truth and falsity.
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Describe in detail the way in which a fully observant Orthodox Jewish family would keep this mitzvah. You should explain the symbolism of the various ceremonies and rituals where relevantShabbat is the only Jewish holiday
For example, the mother will have prepared all the meals needed because God said it was important to have three meals during Shabbat, but that they should still abstain from growing or preparing the food. Modern technology has made this easier because the Jews are able to put their meals in slow cookers and although the parents aren't able to create a fire or turn on the heating, they are able to set a timer for the heating. The light on the fridge is also taped up so that the fridge can be opened without breaking the Shabbat rule, not to create fire or light.
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The Sabbath, how it is presented in Mark's Gospel and how different Christian denominations worship on the Sabbath.
"The Sabbath was made for man, and not man for the Sabbath" (Mark, 2, 27). In Jesus' argument with the Scribes and Pharisees he defended his disciples for plucking ears of corn to help a hungry person and he argued that Sabbath is not broken in cases of necessity or by acts of charity as is the way that his disciples were accused of 'breaking the Sabbath'. The Sabbath is now celebrated on Sundays by Christians celebrating mass. In Mark's Gospel, Mark speaks of the Sabbath in a very controversial way.
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Critically evaluate the claim that all religious doctrines and institutions exercise patriarchal control over women.
This surely suggests that as women have greater religiosity than men they must not feel exploited or subservient to males. On the other hand their roles still tend to be secondary where they do not often participate actively in the service. Orthodox Jewish women for example cannot read from the Torah scroll or participate in symbolic actions at festivals. The Torah justifies the position of women by saying that Eve influenced her husband to eat at her command in the Garden of Eden and as a result of this woman would become subservient to men.
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Sabbath is a day to be honoured and enjoyed as a gift from god. The Pharisees The Pharisees had a great deal of influence in the synagogues and in every Jewish community. They devoted their lives to studying the Torah. To make sure that gods commandments were followed in daily lives they created many extra rules on matters such as washing, eating, the Sabbath and festivals. Jesus said that the Pharisees had created too many laws, making the religious life a burden rather then a joy. The Pharisees created very selfish laws that were mostly beneficial towards them and not for the Sabbath and once Jesus was picking corn with his disciples and they questioned the disciples and criticized them because technically they were working (harvesting)
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Jews reflect upon God as the creator of all things. Simchat Torah commemorates the acceptance of the Torah and God's counselling on how His chosen people should live Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur both call upon Jews to reflect upon their actions to God and towards each other. They are times of forgiving. Another way that festivals are very important is because of the children of Jews. They are the Jewish future and without them, the faith would die. Jews rely on the traditions and symbolism to pass down through generations.
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Similarly, Christians are released from bondage and delivered to glory through faith in Jesus Christ the Lord. And, as the Lamb of God, Jesus' blood pays the debt for those who believe in Him. Moreover, Bukzaben says, "The deliverance of Israel from Egypt is the central point in Jewish history and worship, even as Calvary is the central point in the Christian faith" (2). I found the 'Feast of Weeks' especially interesting in how it is identified by differing titles and too, how each title was derived.
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Practising Jews study the Torah as it contains history of the Jews and tradition including Exodus, Moses and Race. Jews celebrate the Torah (rejoice in the law,) at the Simchat Festival. The Torah is very important to practising Jews as it is a hallowed gift that gives them guidance and contains all of their beliefs. The Torah directs the lives of the Jews' in many ways: * Morality * Relationships * Hospitality * Charity * Marriage * Purity. Therefore, the Torah is a very valuable possession and is truly honoured. The Torah also represents the covenant made between a Jew and God, it's their side of the deal.
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