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Philosophy - analysis of Nietzsche, Sartre and Tolstoy

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Q18: What criticisms does Nietzsche have of traditional ?Christian? morality and what sort of morals would he rather put in its place? Explain why you do, or don?t, find his arguments to be sound. Criticism 1. He believes that humans should not believe in a divine order to have a purpose in life. 2. Humans in the past have replaced an old myth when it came crashing down with a new myth to keep themselves believing in a higher order as the meaning to life 3. Says it is not enough to realize that ?god is dead? but we must also stop thinking about the world in theistic terms 4. Believes the justification we give to many of our practices does not really explain why we do them. 5. Though we have broken through the belief that the world is structured in our belief in God we still think of the world in theological terms where we take the world to have a purpose and the universe to be ordered. Nietzsche Morals: - The fact that life might ultimately be meaningless is something that one has to face, and we need to recognize that religion is our justification for many practices. - We now need to find new explanations and disregard our theistic perception of the world since the practice persists even if their putative justification does not. ...read more.


Men is nothing else but what he makes himself 5. This impacts our lives because we are choosing for all of mankind, we are the lawmaker FORLORNNESS: 1. Forlorness means that God doesn’t exist and we have have to face all the consequences 2. Basically nothing to follow, have to do things yourself – No guidelines, values 3. This impact our lives because we have nothing to look up to and that we have no excuses for our actions DESPAIR: 1. Confine ourselves to reckoning, depends upon our will, or probabilities which make our actions possible 2. Since we choose our own values, everyone values differ and as a result, we cannot assume other people are good 3. Our environment can affect how we act 4. Don’t believe in faith, if things were going bad, no reason to think that it won’t stay that way 5. This impacts our lives because it is harder for us to trust people since everyone has different values WHY HIS VIEWS ARE NOT PLAUSIBLE 1. Essence precedes existence because God created us and has already determined a plan for our existence 2. for people who do not believe in God, there are already expectations laid upon us by others like our family and people who are close to them ï SOCIALIZATION 1. Forlornness: what about the people who believe in God? ...read more.


Do not worry about problems as much as the sick soul 3. Try to solve any problems right away or they would ignore it an try to come back to it later WHAT IS REQUIRED TO MAKE THEM HAPPY 1. Removes tension from what is wrong in the world SICK SOUL: 1. Very sensetive to problems that arise 2. Think about the future negatively, world will eventually end and this causes them to be unhappy 3. If problems arise, instead of just solving it right away, they evaluate all their options and choices WHAT IS REQUIRED TO MAKE THEM HAPPY 1. If they are not satisfied, they feel hopeless, they always want to achieve something better WHICH IS MORE COMPELLING AND WHY: 1. The healthy mind is more compelling because they are removing the tension from their life which makes them happier Q27: ?we have a right to believe the physical order to be only a partial order? we have a right to supplement it by an unseen spiritual order which we assume on trust, if only thereby life may seem to us better worth living again? (ILWL pp. 5-6) 1. Therefore James believes that as humans we are required to believe in a larger reality followed by the existing world because it is the only way to give meaning to our life. 2. Need to define the healthy minded and the sick soul and their perspective on life, since they healthy minded don?t need to be born twice. ...read more.

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