• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Religious Studies - Ethics: Natural Moral Law

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Religious Studies - Ethics Natural Moral Law a) Critically examine what is meant by Natural Moral Law. (8 marks) b) Analyse and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of Natural Moral Law as a definitive ethical theory. (12 marks) a) Natural Moral Law is the ancient belief that we can deduce what is right and wrong by looking at nature, this being the one moral code that is applicable to all people. The main features of Natural Moral Law as an ethical theory are that it is unchanging, universally applicable and relevant to all circumstances. The theory is absolutist, objective, deontological and thought to be God-given. Natural Law has also been interpreted to promote the idea that human law through government is an extension of divine law. Although Natural Law is consistent with Christian thinking and scripture, it is not reliant upon them and fundamentally, it is a system of morality based on human reasoning. The origins of Natural Law can be found in the ancient world amongst the philosophers Plato and Aristotle who believed that there was a law within nature that could be applied to everyone. In the 4th Century BC, Plato presented the idea through a debate between 'Nomos' (human law) and 'Phusis' (natural law). Aristotle, who wrote 'Nichomachean Ethics', distinguished natural justice from human justice in his claim that human justice was subject to change according to culture and nation whilst natural justice was independent of this, emphasising this concept in his statement that "Fire burns here as it does in Persia". ...read more.

Middle

Aquinas emphasised the concept of Natural Law evaluating both what one does and why one does it and encouraged the idea of exterior and interior acts. For Aquinas, both the intention and act are important, and to act in a good way for the wrong reason is to perform a good exterior act but a bad interior act. For example, helping a blind person to cross a road in order to impress someone would be considered morally wrong as Aquinas felt that a good action should be done out of charity and not for the sake of admiration by others. Aquinas appreciated the fact that good intentions didn't always result in good actions, however, the only end that was valued by Aquinas was God. Whether or not actions lead toward God depends upon if the action fits a human's purpose. Acts that accord with Aquinas' primary precepts are intrinsically good and acts that frustrate the natural order are intrinsically wrong. Aquinas presented the concept of 'secondary precepts', which were designed to help humans concerning things we should and shouldn't do because they uphold or fail to maintain the original primary precepts. His secondary precepts were deduced from the primary precepts and they are recognised as being to not murder, to not abort the unborn, to defend the defenceless and to not commit suicide. ...read more.

Conclusion

With his example of Eskimos who kill babies and family members who they think will not survive the winter, Nelson has shown that common human nature is unlikely. Furthermore, Aquinas' understanding of human purpose is limited, as although he states one of the final causes for humans to be reproduction, he himself was a celibate priest. The theory as a whole is focused upon humanity working towards the goal of glorifying God with little room for individual purposes in a relationship with God, and so therefore is narrow and restrictive in suggesting that we have particular functions to fulfil. Whilst Natural Law upholds the idea that some things, such as the preservation of human life, have intrinsic value, one could also observe that Aquinas' thinking is typical of its time. His belief that every individual has a purpose and function that is God-given and unchangeable could be considered outdated. Alongside this argument, although Natural Law is supposedly a Christian ethic, Jesus opposed the legalistic morality of his time, the Pharisees. Although the weaknesses of Natural Moral Law outweigh the strengths, given the above criticisms, it is worth noting that natural law may not be as rigid as it first appears. Aquinas accepted that while the primary precepts were unalterable, the secondary precepts were subject to change owing to particular circumstances. Joanna Lowe Page 1 Miss Monyard ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Practical Questions section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Practical Questions essays

  1. Utilitarianism VS Kantian Deontological Ethics

    that you weren't well enough to attend. However, a funeral is not the type of family occasion you can usually 'get out of' simply by 'pulling a sickie'. Your relatives may rearrange the funeral for another day requiring you to lie again.

  2. Discuss the Relationship between law and morals. Consider how far the law seeks to ...

    Disagreements as to the content of legal rules can be resolved by references to the statutes. Over the past thirty years there has been a considered development over societies view on drink driving. In the past it was considered to be acceptable for someone to spend an evening in a pub, consuming alcohol and then driving home.

  1. Analyse and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of natural moral law as a definitive ...

    As a result, some, such as Joseph Fletcher argue that Jesus himself has rejected natural moral law. Some Christian ethicists argue in favour of a morality that is based more on the person involved rather than the acts committed. One such writer is Kevin T.

  2. Kant's theory of Ethics

    ends in themselves. 'In this kingdom nothing conflicts with reason, and the rational being is both subject and sovereign of the law which there obtains' (Scruton, page 71) The key strengths of Kant's theory of ethics are as follows. Firstly, it is a deontological argument that does not concern itself

  1. Examine the key features of situation ethics, and the main criticisms of it, and ...

    If it were the case that agape could always be fairly and accurately dealt out, then laws would be redundant. As it is, there are no such guarantees, and so a degree of law is necessary for human survival. Barclay believes that law is essential for a variety of reasons:

  2. What is Natural Moral Law? What are the strengths and weaknesses of NML?

    So from this we can conclude that a 'good' person is one which has lots of offspring and a 'bad' person doesn't. Aquinas also states that all things have potentiality and actuality. Potentiality refers to the things something can change into for example, a tadpole can potentially turn into a

  1. Critically examine what is meant by natural moral law.

    Thus man has an empathic desire to respect and preserve life beyond his own. If man gives in to non-rational desires or 'apparent goods' as Aquinas so calls them then one becomes imprisoned. According to Aquinas if we follow our rationale it would lead to a perfect moral state...

  2. Natural Moral Law - in theory and in practice.

    The idea of law was also proposed by Aquinas who identified 4 types of law on 4 levels which will help a human know what God wills for them. These are eternal, divine, natural and human law. Eternal law is the most important and is formed from the mind of

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work