• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

What are the internal and external features to support the theory that the author of the Fourth Gospel was John the Apostle, son of Zebedee?

Extracts from this document...


Maria Louise Hession 61M 2nd Draft What are the internal and external features to support the theory that the author of the Fourth Gospel was John the Apostle, son of Zebedee? We cannot be certain whom the author of the Fourth Gospel was, however we can try to prove the authorship by looking at the internal and external evidence. Firstly in John (21:20-24) Peter asks Jesus about the beloved disciple. " Peter, turning around, saw the disciple whom Jesus loved following them; the one who also had leaned back on his breast at the supper. This is the disciple who is testifying to these things and wrote these things, and we know that his testimony is true." "The disciple whom Jesus loved" is said to be the one who witnessed to things and who wrote things (21:24) that happened in the Fourth Gospel. In other words, he is not only the author but could also be seen as the authority standing behind the gospel. ...read more.


When Jesus was dying on the cross, around him stood four women and one man, identified as the one whom Jesus loved (19:25-27). Later, the author affirms that the testimony of the man who witnessed Jesus' death is true (19:35); the testimony refers most likely to the traditions about Jesus that have been incorporated into the Gospel of John. This man is most likely "the disciple whom he (Jesus) loved" since he is the only man present at Jesus' crucifixion. The two individuals referred to in John 19:35; 21:24 are no doubt the same man, since they bear the same designation, "the disciple whom Jesus loved." If it is possible to put a name to this man, then the author of the Fourth Gospel can be identified. There is some internal, indirect evidence to consider with respect to the authorship of the Fourth Gospel. The author of the Fourth Gospel is familiar with the geographical features of Palestine He is familiar with Galilee, Samaria and Judea (12:21) ...read more.


The author seems to have written his gospel in Aramaic or a very Semitic type of Greek. However the details relating to the Aramaic/Semitic features of the gospel cause much dispute. The linguistic data suggests that the author's mother tongue was not Greek, but Aramaic. Therefore the author would have the tendency to quote Aramaic words and be influenced by Aramaic grammar when writing in Greek. Also, an author whose first language was Aramaic may have a limited Greek vocabulary and be unable to write Greek except with simplistic style. B.F.Westcott argued that the author of the Fourth Gospel was a Palestinian Jew, an apostle and therefore John son of Zebedee. This conclusion however seem to be a very immense jump. In conclusion the author of the Fourth Gospel seems most likely to be written by John, the apostle. Son of Zebedee. The author would have had to be an apostle of a very close friend of the Twelve, he would have had to have live in Palestine and spoken Aramaic. Therefore it can be said John was the author of the Fourth Gospel. Word Count: 1033 Words ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Christianity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Christianity essays

  1. St.Mark's Gospel

    8:27-38 Peter's confession; the cost of discipleship. 9:1-13 The Transfiguration 19:14-10:52 Jesus teaches and prepares his disciples. 11:1-12:44 Jesus enters Jerusalem, cleanses the Temple, and engages in argument. 13 Jesus teaches of future events ("the Markan apocalypse"). 14-15 The Last Supper, Jesus' arrest trials, and crucifixion.

  2. The Gospel was written to prove to non-believers that Jesus Christ is the Son ...

    Jesus taught many parables showing people how they should live their lives , and hinting his identity. Those who were ready to know , understood the parables well and probably knew who Jesus was.

  1. Discuss and assess the view that according to the author of Lukes gospel it ...

    For instance the healing of the man with the shrivelled hand, Jesus in a synagogue keeping the Sabbath holy asked the people "which is lawful on the Sabbath; to do good or evil, save a life or destroy one?" (Luke 6:9)

  2. Critically assess the view that the two Patrick theory solves the puzzle of Patrick

    Therefore O'Rahilly believes that his arrival date was pushed to 432, and Muirch´┐Ż persuaded readers of his narrative that Palladius had died within a year of arriving in Ireland. According to O'Rahilly, Palladius came to Ireland in 431, laboured for approximately thirty years, and died in the year 461.

  1. Luke's Gospel

    by many critics who maintain that, especially in the Passion Narrative, Luke has used Mark as the foundation of his narrative. It is possible to account for Luke's use of Mark largely in separate 'blocks' as due to his methods of utilising his sources, for he apparently treats Q in

  2. A2 Religious Std Authorship of the Fourth Gospel

    This not only proves John to be the "disciple Jesus loved" but that he had also written the Fourth Gospel." Westcott also looked at external evidences and concluded that the author had to be a Jew living in Palestine as well as an apostle therefore points to John being the author.

  1. Outline the arguments of scholars for and against the view that the author of ...

    Stephen Smalley therefore concludes that on the basis of contact with John the Apostle through Bishop Polycarp, the view of Irenaeus is therefore that John (the beloved disciple of Jesus) published his Gospel at Ephesus in his old age. The view that John the Apostle was in fact the author

  2. 1.) Examine the evidence and reasons to support belief in God based on religious ...

    This quotation from Teresa of Avila, one of the most famous of the Christian mystics, illustrates what many people feel when they have a mystical experience. ?Thus does God, when he raises a soul to union with himself, suspend the natural action of all her faculties.? This quotation displays some

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work