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What were the main issues confronting the rightly guided caliphs during the period 632-661 CE? B) To what extent were the caliphs successful

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Introduction

A) What were the main issues confronting the rightly guided caliphs during the period 632-661 CE? B) To what extent were the caliphs successful dealing with these issues and securing the future of Islam? A) The death of Muhammad in 632 created confusion in the nascent Muslim community, for Muhammad and had left no details as to who should succeed him. Indications were made for Abu bakr to be the first caliph as the prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said 'If I were to take a friend other than my lord, I would take Abu bakr as a friend' (hadith). After a heated discussion by the senior members of the community, Abu bakr was selected as the first caliph. However, the confusion did not end with Abu bakr's accession. Tribes all around Arabia broke out in open revolt, while they continued to acknowledge Muhammad as a prophet, they refuse to send taxes to medina now that Muhammad was dead. Known as 'Wars of Apostasy' in Muslim chronicles, the rebellions were not subdued until the end of 633. At the same time a number of impostors claimed that the prophethood had passed on to them after Muhammad. ...read more.

Middle

Realizing that the original message from God might be inadvertently distorted by textual variants, he appointed a committee to collect the canonical verses and destroy the variant recensions. The result was the text that is accepted to this day throughout the Muslim world. Uthman ruled for twelve years. The first six years were marked by internal peace and tranquillity, but during the second half of his caliphate a rebellion arose. Uthman attempted to retain the unity of the empire by appointing members of his own clan, the Umayyads, to governorship, in particular, the governorship of his kinsman Muawiya was enlarged to include all of Syria and northern Iraq. These actions led to the charge of nepotism by Uthman's detractors. A groups of rebels demanded he abdicate and some of the companions advised him to do so. The rebels broke into Uthman's house and murdered him. Uthman breathed his last breaths in June 656 CE. Uthman was murdered at the hands of discontented Egyptians in 656 CE and the notables of medina selected Ali b Abi Taliba s caliph. His failure to punish Uthman's assassins quickly generated outrage. ...read more.

Conclusion

Ali had to face the most issues because of the previous caliphates. They had left problems that hadn't been solved so Ali had to deal with them. You could argue and say that he was not successful in expand the Muslim empire but lost land, this was because he had to deal with Uthman's problems and of his own. By the time Ali was caliph some of the Muslim lost faith in Islam and therefore rebelled against Ali. He had so much to deal with, that he had no time to expand the Muslim empire or the religion. All the Caliphs were successful because if they did not follow one after another then the future of Islam could have been destroyed, with no one to lead the Islamic community when they were undeveloped. The diversion of the Muslim community in to two groups was not down to the caliphates but down to the Muslims. They had the wrong idea. Shi'a opposed the caliphate system in favouring Ali. The Qurra never accepted Mu'awiya so Qurra formed a group called the Shi'a. All four caliphs were related to Muhammad in some way. ?? ?? ?? ?? Ataur Rahman ...read more.

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